We may treat our pets like they’re human, but that doesn’t mean they get to eat “people food.”
A recent study found Xylitol, a chemical commonly included in gum and sugar-free peanut butter, was deadlier than chocolate to dogs.
It made us wonder: what other common foods are dangerous for our pets?
Keep scrolling to see the list and the side effects.
The seeds and cores of apples can cause dilated pupils, bright red mucous membranes, difficulty breathing, shock, and even death for your canine pal.
They contain cyanide and are most potent when wilting or rotting, according to Dr. Pamela Edwards.
Coconut products are the health trend du jour, but they're likely to cause an upset stomach and diarrhoea if you give your dog a large amount of coconut oil, milk, water, or flesh.
Avocado contains persin, a toxin that can cause vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs.
'When I was little, I used to give my dogs grapes all the time,' Goldstein said. 'But these can cause kidney failure and disease.'
Though no one knows the exact mechanism, there is a direct association, which also extends to raisins, which are even worse than grapes.
These can cause dilated pupils, bright red mucous membranes, difficulty breathing, shock, and death. They contain cyanide and are most potent when wilting and rotting.
'They'd have to eat a lot of onions, but for dogs or smaller dogs that can be very dangerous over time because it causes anemia,' Goldstein explained.
They might also experience gastrointestinal irritation.
Just like onions, garlic can cause stomach issues and even anemia.
'Sometimes owners use baby food to feed their dogs and some baby foods have garlic powder,' Goldstein said. 'We noticed the animals were developing anemia.'
This is also true for cats, who are very sensitive to garlic.
Be very careful with the meat or bones you give your dog since raw or under-cooked products can contain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli.
Bones also pose risk of causing obstruction or even puncturing the gastrointestinal tract.
Chamomile is the daisy plant herb that can cause contact dermatitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and anorexia in your dog. Long term use can lead to 'bleeding tendencies,' according to Edwards.
Don't share chips with your canine friend because they can cause excessive thirst and urination, or in cases of sodium toxicity, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperthermia, depression or stupor, tremors, seizures, and death.
These parts of the cherry also contain cyanide and can cause dilated pupils, bright red mucous membranes, difficulty breathing, shock, and death.
Macadamia nuts can cause weakness, depression, vomiting, tremors, and hyperthermia.
Rhubarb causes hypersalivation, tremors, and kidney failure, according to Edwards.
Tomato plants can lead to solanine toxicity, with side effects such as hypersalivation, anorexia, severe gastrointestinal upset, diarrhoea, lethargy, central nervous system depression, confusion, behavioural change, weakness, dilated pupils, and slow heart rate.
Even small doses of citrus fruits like oranges can cause upset stomachs in dogs. Larger doses can cause increased stomach pain and potentially depression of the central nervous system.
Many people know chocolate is bad for canines, but in addition to vomiting and diarrhoea, the methylxanthines in the chocolate can lead to heavy panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures, and death.
'Darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk and white chocolate as it contains a higher amount of methylxanthines,' explained Goldstein.
Just like chocolate, coffee and caffeine both contain methylxanthines, which can cause the same symptoms as chocolate.
Though your dog probably isn't drinking coffee with you, be wary of where you keep beans in your pantry.
Uncooked eggs can cause skin and coat problems for your pet. There's also obviously the potential for Salmonella and E. coli exposure.
'People and cats are really the only mammals that can tolerate milk as adults,' Goldstein said. Dogs have a low amount of lactase and have trouble breaking down lactose efficiently, which can cause upset stomachs and diarrhoea.
Potato leaves and stems can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, disorientation, lethargy, and central nervous system depression.
The skin can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, lethargy, tremors, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias.
These can cause symptoms in your dog like dilated pupils, bright red mucous membranes, difficulty breathing, shock, and even death because they contain cyanide.
'The dilute nutraceutical extracts can have anti-inflammatory effects, but large amounts of licorice can cause muscle damage and adrenal gland issues (for your dog),' Edwards said.
If your dog ingests alcohol it can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, coma, and death.
Dough with yeast in it can cause life-threatening gastric bloat through increased gas production.
In small amounts, it can secondarily cause ethanol by-products to form and therefore cause alcohol-induced toxicity as well.
If your dog eats hops somehow, it can cause panting, hyperthermia, seizures, and death via an unknown mechanism.
Xylitol is a sweetener that's common in gum and 'sugar-free' products -- including peanut butter. Xylitol can cause vomiting, lethargy, stupor, seizures, and coma.
It can also cause liver failture by causing excessive insulin release and hypoglycemia.
Of course, not all dogs will react the same way to all foods. If you're in doubt, always ask your vet.
'Go over the dietary stuff with your veterinarian and be honest about what you give your dog for treats,' Goldstein said. 'There are some things that are ok, like rice cakes and string beans, but the majority of what dogs should be eating should always be dog food.'
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