Satellites have discovered that global vegetation has increased despite large-scale deforestation

Timbers and a logging railroad made by illegal loggers in Riau province, Sumatra (Photo by Ulet Ifansasti/Getty Images)

The total amount of vegetation globally has increased by almost 4 billion tonnes of carbon since 2003, according to analysis of 20 years of satellite data.

The findings, by an Australian-led international team of scientists and published in the journal Nature Climate Change, indicate China played a major role.

“The increase in vegetation primarily came from a lucky combination of environmental and economic factors and massive tree-planting projects in China,” said Dr Yi Liu a lead author and remote sensing scientist from the University of New South Wales.

Vegetation increased in Australia, Africa and South America because of a rise in rainfall. In Russia and the former Soviet republics forests have regrown on abandoned farmland. China wa the only country to intentionally increase its vegetation with tree planting projects.

However, vegetation is being lost on a massive scale in other regions. The greatest declines are on the edge of the Amazon forests and in the Indonesian provinces of Sumatra and Kalimantan.

The research team pioneered a technique to map changes in vegetation biomass over time, using satellite measurements of natural radio waves emitted from the Earth’s surface.

“Previous analyses of vegetation biomass focused on forest cover change,” said fellow lead author, Professor Albert van Dijk of the Australian National University (ANU).

“With our approach we found unexpectedly large vegetation increases in the savannas of southern Africa and northern Australia,”he said. “The increase in Australia occurred despite ongoing land clearing, urbanization and big droughts across other parts of Australia.”

The increased greening means the total amount of carbon captured in Australia’s vegetation has increased.

The main cause of this growth came from higher rainfall although higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere may have helped plants there to grow more vigorously.

However the situation could rapidly reverse with extended dry periods, according to CSIRO’s Dr Pep Canadell, a co-author of the study and director of the Global Carbon Project

“This study shows this capture of carbon is very sensitive to year-to-year changes in rainfall over savanna regions, both for Australia and for the global CO2 budget,” Dr Canadell said

“It’s important to recognise that global warming would be happening faster if some of our CO2 emissions were not captured by this vegetation growth.”

But even with the good news of nature helping regulate Earth’s climate, Dr Canadell said there was still only one way to reduce the impacts of global warming.

“We know about 50% of emissions from human activities stay in the atmosphere even after the other half is removed by terrestrial vegetation and oceans. The only way to stabilise the climate system is to reduce global fossil fuel emissions to zero.”

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