RANKED: The greatest US presidents, according to political scientists

Presidential rankings tend to be subjective and divisive, but they also provide valuable insight into how historical views of presidents evolve over time.

In a recent survey, nearly 200 political science scholars ranked US presidents on a scale of 0-100, from failure (zero) to average (50) to great (100). The totals were then averaged for each president and ranked from highest to lowest.

A majority of the 170 respondents – roughly 57% – identified as Democrats. Just 13% were Republicans, while 27% said they were independents, and 3% selected other. The skewed sampling plus the fact that President Donald Trump is in the middle of his second year in office make it difficult to accurately compare him to previous presidents.

But even among Republicans, Trump was ranked quite unfavorably. Respondents who identified as Republicans or conservatives ranked Trump 40th out of 44 presidents. Self-described Democrats and liberals both ranked him last.

Here are the greatest US presidents, ranked according to current and recent members of the American Political Science Association:

44: Donald Trump

43: James Buchanan

42: William Harrison

41: Franklin Pierce

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40: Andrew Johnson

39: Warren Harding

38: Millard Fillmore

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37: John Tyler

36: Herbert Hoover

35: Zachary Taylor

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34: James Garfield

33: Richard Nixon

32: Benjamin Harrison

31: Chester Arthur

30: George W. Bush

29: Rutherford B. Hayes

28: Calvin Coolidge

27: Martin Van Buren

26: Jimmy Carter

25: Gerald Ford

24: Grover Cleveland

23: John Quincy Adams

22: William Howard Taft

Archive Photos/Getty

21: Ulysses S. Grant

20: James Polk

19: William McKinley

18: James Monroe

17: George H.W. Bush

16: John F. Kennedy

15: Andrew Jackson

14: John Adams

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13: Bill Clinton

12: James Madison

11: Woodrow Wilson

10: Lyndon B. Johnson

9: Ronald Reagan

8: Barack Obama

7: Dwight Eisenhower

6: Harry Truman

5: Thomas Jefferson

4: Teddy Roosevelt

3: Franklin Delano Roosevelt

2: George Washington

1: Abraham Lincoln

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