In the shake-up, one of the divisions that will become its own company is Google X, the secretive-ish lab that’s devoted to experimental projects like driverless cars, artificial intelligence, and delivery drones.
Google X is also home to Project Loon, an effort to use high-altitude balloons to deliver internet in rural areas, or places where accessing the web is difficult.
Google unveiled Loon in 2013, but the company had been working on it for at least two years before the company debuted it publicly.
Here’s everything we know about Project Loon.
Project Loon balloons fly between 60,000 and 90,000 feet, about two to three times as high as most commercial aeroplanes.
The gas-filled part of the balloon is made of plastic, and when it's inflated, it's about 40 feet long.
Loon balloons are solar-powered and have rechargeable batteries so they can operate at night. They're also equipped with GPS and weather monitoring equipment.
On the Project Loon website, Google says that the speed of the service will be 'comparable to 3G,' which means it's fast enough to access your email on surf the web, but you wouldn't want to use it to stream Netflix or high quality video.
The LTE signal is sent up from ground stations to the network of Loon balloons, and then from the balloons to the ground.
Google says that one balloon can cover a roughly 25 mile in diameter area on the ground, and that 'hundreds of people can connect to each balloon at once.'
When you access the web through a signal from a Loon balloon, the traffic is relayed from the ground, back up to the network of balloons, and then back down to a ground station, where, according to Google, 'it connects to pre-existing Internet infrastructure.'
This is what the ground antenna looks like.
The direction of wind varies with altitude, so Google controls the direction of the balloons by lowering them or raising them.
All of the balloons are equipped with GPS and can be controlled both by humans and automatically.
When Google first started testing Loon, small leaks in the balloons would cause them to come down after a hours or few days.
But it now has cranes that can launch 'dozens' of balloons each day.
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