The 19 most game-changing weapons of the last 15 years

Screen Shot 2015 05 07 at 10.36.37 AMYouTubeThe YAL Airborne Laser Testbed’s turret assembly

We’ve come a long way since the stealth bomber.

Just as smart gadgets have invaded our homes and revolutionised our lives over the last 15 years, next-level weaponry has transformed the military.

The imperatives of the military have always been one of the main drivers of technological development.

ARPANET, one of the internet’s most important precursors was a Pentagon project, while most of the technology in an iPhone originated with the US Department of Defence.

Today, militaries all over the world are still pushing technological boundaries. Since the turn of the millennium, weapons featuring a vast range of technical sophistication have proven to be game-changers.

Everything from concealed roadside bombs — cheap, primitive, and deadly ¬† — to multi-billion-dollar aerial lasers¬†have transformed conventional methods of combat and altered the world’s technological and political landscape.

Here are 19 of the most important weapons of the last 15 years.

Massive-Ordnance Penetrator bombs

America's largest conventional bomb is precision-guided, 20 feet long, weighs 30,000 pounds, and can blast through underground bunkers.

Boeing's Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) bomb is designed to pierce through 60 feet of reinforced concrete and then detonate 200 feet underground -- making no bunker safe.

After the MOP's first successful test in 2007, the US Air Force ordered an arsenal of these mega-bombs.

The Chinese anti-satellite program

Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force's anti-aircraft and ground-to-air missile systems are seen on display ahead of the 10th China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, November 10, 2014.

In January of 2007, China initiated a new and terrifying era in warfare. Using a C-19 ballistic missile, the People's Liberation Army destroyed an out-of-commission weather satellite flying over 500 miles above the surface of the earth.

In a single widely-condemned move, China had militarised outer space, a move that might have been inevitable, but whose long-term consequences are startling. If satellites were considered legitimate military targets, attacks could create debris fields that would knock out entire orbits or create chain reactions that might destroy vital communications and global-positioning satellites. Similarly, countries could deploy weapons to outer space capable of destroying terrestrial targets once the global taboo against space warfare is obliterated.

If that alarming worst-case scenario ever comes to pass, future generations could identify the successful 2007 test as the moment that space became a military frontier. The test also showed China's eagerness to develop weapons that its rivals would never use -- showing how a state can use asymmetrical means to close the gap with it more powerful rivals.

The X-47B

The Navy's X-47B is a strike-fighter-sized unmanned aircraft with the potential to completely change aerial warfare.

Northrop Grumman's drone is capable of aerial refuelling, 360-degree rolls, and offensive weapon deployment. It's carried out the first autonomous aerial refuelling in aviation history, and has taken off and landed from an aircraft carrier.

It cruises at half the speed of sound, and has a wingspan of 62 ft -- as well as a range of at least 2,400 miles, which is over twice that of the Reaper drone.

The V-22 Osprey

A US Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey lands near Buchanan, Liberia, on Oct. 18, 2014.

The V-22 Osprey is a multi-task tilt rotor aircraft that has become a staple of the Marine Corps since its introduction into service. The Osprey can take off and land vertically like a helicopter, but it can travel at speeds approaching that of a fixed-wing plane.

The Osprey originally suffered from several worrisome accidents including a series of fatal crashes before it was officially introduced into service in 2007. The plane's later models have now become absolutely indispensable for the Marines. It has seen use in combat and rescue operations as far afield as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya.

The Air Force, Navy, and Marines have used the Osprey for almost every conceivable mission. It has been used for troop transport, MEDEVAC missions, supply transport, and aerial delivery, and it is being tested for use as an aerial refuelling platform. As it can land vertically, the Osprey is also able to take part in operations normally out of bounds for traditional aircraft, which typically need hundreds of feet of runway space.

Boost-glide hypersonic weapons

An artist's rendition of DARPA's own hypersonic aircraft, the Falcon HTV-2.

Boost-glide hypersonic weapons are the latest arena in which the US and China are competing militarily. Neither country has quite developed a working advanced hypersonic weapon (AHW) prototype, but the two countries both tested their own versions in August 2014.

Boost-glide weapons can hit their targets with unprecedented speed and effectiveness. If they ever become operable, these weapons would be able to deliver weapons payloads while travelling at a velocity five times faster than the speed of sound over a range of several thousand miles.

Boost-glide weapons are capable of travelling on a trajectory that makes them difficult for missile-defence systems to intercept, since those systems are designed to work against the high arc of traditional ballistic missiles. Boost-glide projectiles travel quickly and at a flat angle, working at speeds and trajectories that flummox existing missile defence technologies.

These weapons could deliver nuclear warheads faster and better than anything ever built, and experts fear that they could spark a new arms race.

Seaborne Tomahawk Missiles

A Tomahawk missile, guided by a F/A-18 Super Hornet hits a moving maritime target.

On January 27, the Navy carried out a successful test of a steerable marine-launched Tomahawk missile. Guided by a F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, the modified missile was able to change directions in flight and hit a moving maritime target.

'This is potentially a game-changing capability for not a lot of cost,' Deputy Secretary of Defence Bob Work said at the WEST 2015 conference. 'It's a 1,000-mile anti-ship cruise missile.'

The new converted Tomahawks would have a range of almost 1,000 nautical miles, allowing the US to maintain a considerable edge over rival naval powers. On the other side of the Pacific, one of China's most threatening new military advancements is its development of its own advanced anti-ship cruise missiles. While potentially threatening to US ships, these missiles would have just half the range of the converted Tomahawk.

THAAD missiles

The most advanced missile system on the planet can hunt and blast incoming missiles right out of the sky with a 100% success rate -- from a truck, no less.

With its unmatched precision, the Terminal High-Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) system can equalise conflicts around the world. With its mobility and strategic battery-unit placement, the THAAD can close the gap between mismatched military forces and take away an enemy's aerial advantage.

Impressively, the THAAD missile does not carry a warhead, instead using pure kinetic energy to deliver 'hit-to-kill' lethality to ballistic missiles inside or outside of the earth's atmosphere. Each launcher carries up to eight missiles and can send multiple kill vehicles, depending on the severity of the threat.

The YAL Airborne Laser Testbed

The YAL airborne laser testbed

Weaponised lasers will likely be a feature on the battlefield of the future. Even though only one of the weapons was ever built and the program has been discontinued, the YAL Airborne Laser Testbed was an important proof of concept.

The American weapon, which was first tested successfully in 2007, was housed inside a converted 747 aircraft, which had the largest laser turret ever built installed on the plane's nose. The laser was built to intercept tactical ballistic missiles midway through their flight path, and in a 2010 test, the YAL succeeded in shooting down a test target.

The military decided the YAL was impractical -- in order to intercept a missile, the aircraft would have to already be in the air, while the weapon itself was expensive to fabricate, operate, and maintain. Still, it demonstrated that enormous, high-powered lasers could destroy large and fast-moving objects, and do so in mid-air.

If lasers ever become a feature of aerial combat, it will be because of the precedent of the YAL.

The Laser Weapon System

The Navy's Laser Weapon System, or LaWS, is a ship-mounted weaponised laser that can burn through enemy targets in less than 30 seconds.

The energy used to deploy a single LaWS laser shot costs approximately $US1 compared to the traditional SM-2, a similar surface-to-air system that runs $US400,000 per missile.

Earlier this year, Boeing signed a contract with the US Navy to upgrade the current software used on the laser system.

Stuxnet

Iranian technicians work at the Bushehr nuclear power plant in Iran. The country's nuclear chief said on Nov. 23, 2010 that Stuxnet had not harmed Iran's atomic program, and accused the West of trying to sabotage it. Iran had earlier confirmed that Stuxnet infected several personal laptops belonging to employees at the Bushehr nuclear power plant but that plant systems were not affected.

In 2010, a malicious computer program swept through Iran's nuclear infrastructure. Stuxnet caused uranium enrichment centrifuges to inexplicably fail and knocked out as much as 20% of Iran's enrichment capacity. The computer worm essentially slowed Iran's nuclear efforts, raising the pressure on Tehran and buying the US and its allies some valuable time in building up international opposition to the country's program.

Stuxnet was a turning point in the modern history of warfare. It was a state-sponsored hack, a computer program likely built by the US and Israel in order to influence the behaviour of a rival government. It arguably worked, to a degree -- Iran's program was slowed, the international community tightened its sanctions regime, the Iranian economy teetered on the brink of collapse, and the conditions for the current negotiations slid into place.

But it also set a precedent for governments hacking one another and hashing out their disagreements in the cyber realm. The North Korean hack of Sony is arguably the next step in the process and shows how cyber weapons may be so hard to control now that they have been introduced into international affairs.

Iron Dome

Ever since Hezbollah rained hundreds of rockets over northern Israel during a July 2006 escalation in hostilities, projectile attacks have been the country's most pressing security challenge. There have been some 15,000 rocket attacks on the country since 2001, including attacks from Iranian and Russian-made missiles capable of hitting Israel's major population centres.

The Iron Dome anti-missile battery is capable of tracking the trajectory of an incoming projectile and then launching an interceptor that detonates the missile at a safe altitude. Iron Dome saves lives on both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Hamas rocket attacks during flare-ups in 2012 and 2014 killed few people inside of Israel even including days in which over 100 rockets were fired. Without Iron Dome, the death toll would have been far higher in both conflicts and Israel's response might have been even more protracted.

Iron Dome was developed by a state-owned Israeli defence company to face a specific threat and therefore has little battlefield applicability beyond the country's borders. But it's one of the primary modern examples of a country mustering all of its technological resources to solve a highly specialised and difficult security problem. In an era where large, set-piece battles between armies and traditional battlefield tactics may be a thing of the past, this may be the kind fo the military edge that ends up counting the most.

Heat rays

Both China and the US have developed non-lethal 'heat rays' that cause extreme pain and can aid in crowd control. The general idea behind the weapons is to heat the water just below the surface of a person's skin so as to induce pain, causing the target to flee without inflicting death or incapacitation.

The Chinese heat ray can target individuals at up to 262 feet away. When hooked up to an extra power source, the beam can hit targets at distances of 0.6 miles.

The US version of the heat ray, known as the Active Denial System (ADS), had a range of 1,000 meters and could raise the temperature of a target's skin by 130 degrees. However, the ADS was recalled by the US military without ever having been used over questions of its ethical application.

Bullets that can change direction in flight

Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (EXACTO) are bullets that can change their path during flight to correct for the movement of a target or any other factors that might have driven the projectile off-course.

The bullets feature optical tips that can detect guidance lasers focused on a target. Tiny fins on the bullets then guide the bullet towards that laser. The Pentagon just successfully conducted a live-fire test utilising these rounds.

If fully implemented, these rounds could drastically improve the accuracy of US soldiers. The weapons would also help reduce the risks of friendly-fire incidents or of stray bullets harming civilians.

The Golden Hour blood container

This isn't a weapon -- but it's still a game-changer.

The Golden Hour, developed by US Army scientists in 2003, helped keep US soldiers alive after suffering a major battlefield injury. The box-like thermal container preserved red blood cells at a temperature that would prevent donor blood from dying under harsh environmental conditions in Iraq and Afghanistan -- all without having to use electricity, batteries, or ice to moderate the blood's temperature.

If soldiers were injured on the battlefield, there would be life-saving donor blood immediately on hand in small and easily-portable containers that require no actual energy input, allowing medics to perform transfusions quickly and efficiently when soldiers' lives are most at risk.

The container shows that not every major battlefield development is weapons-related, and it demonstrates just how far technology has come in saving soldiers' lives.

Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected vehicles

The US was in huge trouble in Iraq in 2005. The American-led mission was losing ground to a growing insurgency led by al-Qaeda elements. And the US was suffering huge losses from improvised explosive devices that would rip through even heavily armoured vehicles. Insurgents were setting bombs that would detonate under American personnel carriers, which weren't built to withstand the insurgents' weaponry.

The heavily armoured MRAP was designed, developed, and built in a matter of months to counter the US's biggest operational challenge in Iraq, and by 2009 over 21,000 of them were in service.

Developed on an accelerated schedule, the MRAP reduced US casualties from mine and IED attacks by 80%. And it provided the US and its allies with a vehicle that could operate in a new, challenging combat environment.

Four-tube night-vision goggles

Each member of Navy SEAL Team Six is issued $US65,000 four-tube night vision goggles, according to Navy SEAL Matt Bissonnette in his book 'No Easy Day.'

Compared to the standard two-tube goggles, which Bissonnette says are similar to binoculars, the four-tubes give soldiers a greatly expanded field of view.

The Ground Panoramic Night Vision Goggles are made in Londonderry, New Hampshire., by L-3 Warrior Systems' Insight division, Defence One reports.

Since 2010, the Pentagon has spent at least $US12.5 million on this elite military eyewear, according to Defence One reports.

The Ghost hovercraft

Developed by Juliet Marine Systems, the Ghost could become one of the military's ships of the future.

Propped on two blade-like pontoons, the Ghost cuts through the water while maintaining enhanced balance. The design allows the ship to reduce friction and increase its stability.

The ship's design has also been designed for maximum stealth. The ship is nonmagnetic and hard to detect via sonar, making it ideal for infiltration and surveillance of enemy waters.

The Ghost can also deploy a range of offensive weapons that are similar to what an attack helicopter would carry. The vessel can be equipped with Gatling guns, Griffin missiles, and rockets launched either from its hull or from the craft's skin.

You've see the most game-changing weapons of the last 15 years ...

NOW WATCH: Briefing videos

Business Insider Emails & Alerts

Site highlights each day to your inbox.

Follow Business Insider Australia on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Instagram.