The 10 most game-changing aircraft of the 21st century

StratolaunchYouTube ScreenshotAn artist rendering of the Stratolaunch, which is still in development.

Today’s most sophisticated aircraft are the things of science fiction.

In a few years, drones that can fit in the palm of a person’s hand and 117-foot-wingspan behemoths capable of launching satellites into space could both be a reality.

At the same time, drone and advanced-fighter technologies will spread beyond the US and Europe, and countries including China, Russia, and Iran may have highly advanced aerial capabilities.

Here’s our look at the most game-changing aircraft of the past few years — and the next few to come.

F-35 Lightning II

The F-35 program may cost as much as $1.5 trillion over its lifetime. But the plane is also supposed to be the most fearsome military aircraft ever built, a plane that can dogfight, provide close air support, and carry out bombing runs, all with stealth capabilities, a high degree of manoeuvrability, and the ability to take off and land on aircraft carriers.

It hasn't quite worked out that way so far, and problems with everything from the plane's software system to its engines has delayed its deployment and pushed its costs upward. And it isn't nearly as effective at close air support as existing platforms such as the A-10.

But the US has more than 1,700 F-35s on order. Like it or not, the F-35 will be the US' workhorse warplane for decades to come.

F-22 Raptor

Staff Sgt. Jim Araos/USAF

The predecessor to Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II is the single-seat, twin-engine F-22 Raptor, currently the most advanced combat-ready jet.

The US is the only country that flies the F-22 thanks to federal law that prohibits the jet from being exported. Lockheed Martin built 195 jets before the last one was delivered to the US Air Force in May 2012. Despite the program's cost and the jet's advanced features, it saw combat for the first time relatively recently, during the opening phase of the bombing campaign against the Islamic State in mid-2014.


Russia's Su-50, also known under the prototype name of the T-50 PAK-FA, is the Kremlin's fifth-generation fighter and its response to the F-35.

Though still in prototype, Moscow thinks the Su-50 will ultimately be able to outperform the F-35 on key metrics such as speed and manoeuvrability. The stealth capabilities of the Su-50, however, are believed to be below those of the F-22 and the F-35.

The Kremlin plans to introduce the Su-50 into service by 2016. Once the plane is combat-ready, it will serve as a base model for the construction of further variants intended for export. India is already codesigning an Su-50 variant with Russia, and Iran and South Korea are possible candidates to buy future models of the plane.

Chengdu J-20


The Chengdu J-20 is China's second fifth-generation fighter in development and a potential game changer in East Asia.

The J-20 bears striking resemblance to the F-35 because of Chinese reverse engineering, along with extensive theft of F-35 data. Once completed, the J-20 is assumed to have stealth capability along with the range needed to reach targets within Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam from mainland China.

As of January 2015, Beijing had developed six functional prototypes of the aircraft, with new prototypes being released at an increasingly quick pace. The plane reportedly went into production in February, while the final iteration of the aircraft is expected to be released and combat-ready sometime around 2018.

MH-X Silent Hawk

Screen grab

The military's secret MH-X Silent Hawk program was publicly disclosed only after one of the helicopters crashed during the SEAL raid that killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on May 1, 2011.

It is unclear when the US Army Operations Security's top-secret helicopter program began and how many of these stealthy aircraft are in service.

While the Silent Hawk appears to be a highly modified version of the widely known UH-60 Black Hawk, there are few unclassified details about this secret helicopter.


Northrop Grumman

The Navy's X-47B is a strike-fighter-size unmanned aircraft with the potential to change aerial warfare.

Northrop Grumman's drone is capable of aerial refuelling, 360-degree rolls, and offensive weapons deployment. It carried out the first autonomous aerial refuelling in aviation history and has taken off from and landed on an aircraft carrier.

It cruises at half the speed of sound and has a wingspan of 62 feet -- as well as a range of at least 2,400 miles, more than twice that of the Reaper drone.

While testing of the drone was suspended at one point, in February, Northrup Gruman posted a job listing for an X-47B test pilot.


The Stratolaunch will be one of the most astounding planes ever built.

Now in its development stage, the plane will serve as a midair launch platform for vehicles that is capable of carrying satellites into orbit. The aircraft, whose 117-foot wingspan will be the largest of any plane ever built, will fly to an altitude of 30,000 feet and then angle upward before blasting its payload into space.

The plane would be a relatively cheap and reusable launch vehicle for satellites and would revolutionise how hardware and possibly even human beings can access orbital space. It could fly as early as this year, although it's still unclear what kind of payloads the plane will eventually be able to launch.

Here's a video of how it will all work:

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Wikimedia Commons

The Air Force's secretive space drone returned from a two-year mission in October. It wasn't clear exactly what the X-37B was doing up there, but it was relaunched on May 20, 2015 for another extended stint in orbit.

With the X-37B, the Air Force essentially has a reusable satellite that it can control and call back to earth. The ability to re-equip an orbital platform for specific mission types gives the US military unprecedented flexibility in how it can use outer space. Its long periods in orbit and reusability are impressive engineering feats, too.

Nano Hummingbird

YouTube screenshot

These tiny Darpa-developed surveillance drones could become future military staples. Small enough to evade enemy detection or fire, the Nano Hummingbird can fit in the palm of your hand and relay images and intelligence from the air.

Most surveillance drones, such as the RQ-4 Global Hawk, are large aircraft that fly at altitudes of 60,000 feet. Aircraft such as the Nano Hummingbird, which is light, stealthy, and easy to launch, could be a routine part of a future combat soldier's arsenal.

Watch it in action here:

(video provider='youtube' id='a8ZbtZqH6Io' size='xlarge' align='center')

Iran's drones


Iran has been under sanctions and a Western arms embargo for much of the past 30 years, something that has denied Tehran the chance to obtain high-quality European or American arms. But it has forced Iran to develop its own domestic arms capabilities, and in 2013 Iran debuted an armed drone strikingly similar to the US' Reaper, called the Fotros. It's unclear whether the Fotros is battle-ready, but Iran and Hezbollah, Tehran's proxy militia in Lebanon -- along with the Sudanese military -- already fly Iran's Ababil-3 surveillance drone.

Iran's drones aren't game changers because of their high quality but because of what they represent: Even countries chafing under international sanctions can develop their own drone technology with enough patience and technological expertise. The Fotros and Ababil-3 suggest that an era of widespread drone proliferation is just around the corner.

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