Elon Musk is worth $US13.1 billion as of September 2015, but allegedly doesn’t believe in the word “business.”
The tech entrepreneur, born in South Africa in 1971, reportedly told Wait But Why earlier this year that “there’s no such thing as a business, just pursuit of a goal.”
Whatever Musk labels his efforts, he sure has involved himself in a bunch of them — major online payment services, building and launching spacecraft, and trying to cover the world with solar panels, to name a few.
The breadth of his reach is astounding, and it’s enough to make anyone feel exhausted.
To cut through that complexity, we’ve highlighted 18 entities that Musk has reportedly founded, cofounded, invested in, or supported in some way.
After investing heavily in Tesla Motors, founded by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in 2003, Musk joined the company's board of directors.
Its first car, the Roadster, wowed consumers with its sports-car-like ability to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in under four seconds and travel about 250 miles on a single charge.
After the 2008 market collapse, Musk took a more active role and became CEO of the company, a position he still holds today.
Their latest car is so good it broke the Consumer Reports rating system.
Musk reportedly purchased a 10% stake in this small-satellite provider in early 2005, which 'will give SpaceX a window on the thinking of the world's most successful vendor of small, inexpensive spacecraft and ultimately could provide business for SpaceX,' according to Space News.
Surrey Satellite Technology got its start building amateur radio satellites, and now builds, launches, and operates small spacecraft for weather monitoring, communications, and other purposes.
Musk has been a longtime proponent of sustainable and green technology.
In keeping with the energy-saving ilk of Tesla, he invested heavily in SolarCity -- one of the country's largest installers of home solar panels -- which was founded in 2006 by his cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive. He now acts as chairman of the company.
SolarCity designs and installs solar-powered clean-energy systems. It also audits and builds electric vehicle charging stations. In April 2015, it announced a partnership to incorporate Tesla batteries into a solar-battery backup system.
According to Crunchbase, Musk invested in Mahalo when the site was founded in 2007.
Mahalo is like Wikipedia, Ask Jeeves, and Quora all on one website. The site allows people to post and answer questions.
After Google overhauled its search function, however, the company was forced to lay off 10% of its staff in 2011. It has since shifted its strategy to create original how-to videos, plus live, user-generated question-and-answer sessions.
Musk did a series of videos with the website in 2011.
Musk is no longer invested in PayPal, but he is invested in one of its biggest competitors: an online payment startup called Stripe.
The company aims to allow online apps and companies like Lyft and Facebook to accept payments from anyone anywhere.
12. Musk's personal love of science led him to give money to the Tesla Science Center in New York in 2014.
The center is in Wardenclyffe, New York -- the same place Tesla built a giant transmitter tower to experiment with sending messages and shuttling wireless electricity.
13. Despite his notorious fear of artificial intelligence, Musk has invested in a startup called Vicarious.
It makes sense, though, that Musk has invested in a number of leading AI companies that are researching how to make future smart bots more friendly.
One of these companies is AI startup Vicarious, founded in 2010. Musk contributed to a $US40 million investment in Vicarious in spring 2014.
Though this company has been unusually secretive, it's 'building a unified algorithmic architecture to achieve human-level intelligence in vision, language, and motor control,' according to Vicarious' website.
Vicarious founder Scott Phoenix told The Wall Street Journal that the goal is to 'have a computer that thinks like a person, except it doesn't need to eat or sleep.'
14. Another of Musk's AI investments, called DeepMind Technologies, has already been sold to Google.
In a CNBC newscast, Musk says that his investments in AI technology companies are 'not from the standpoint of actually trying to make any investment return … I like to just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence. I think there is potentially a dangerous outcome there.'
'There have been movies about this, you know, like 'Terminator,'' Musk continued, according to The Guardian. 'There are some scary outcomes. And we should try to make sure the outcomes are good, not bad.'
Hence, his high-profile investments in an AI company like DeepMind, founded in 2011 and later acquired by Google in 2014, at which time it was renamed Google DeepMind.
The company's goal is to 'solve intelligence' by melding machine learning and neuroscience into powerful, all-purpose computer algorithms.
16. He's a board member of the X Prize Foundation, a nonprofit that awards prizes for humanity-benefiting inventions.
The organisation holds public competitions to encourage technological inventions that will benefit humanity.
Their categories are diverse and promise cash awards for advancements in sustainable fishing, asteroid deflection, invisibility cloaks, and synthetic astrobiology.
Musk is a member of this foundation's board of trustees.
17. Musk has invested in the startup NeuroVigil, which develops products that analyse brain signals.
Launched in 2007, NeuroVigil developed the world's first portable brain monitor, the iBrain. Musk became a principle investor of the company in May 2015.
NeuroVigil focuses on analysing electrical signals from the brain to help drug companies conduct clinical trials as well as diagnose and treat patients with neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.
It also wants to help NASA keep track of the brains of astronauts while they're aboard the International Space Station.
18. Musk is not officially building his own high-speed travel system concept, the Hyperloop, but he's mentally invested in the idea.
The Hyperloop is a proposed rail system that would ferry people in capsules through tubes at speeds exceeding 500 mph. Musk initially pitched it as a quick, safe, and energy-efficient way to travel between San Francisco and Los Angeles.
Several private companies, such as this LA-based company, are working on commercialising the technology.
Musk has been compared to some of our greatest visionaries, including late Apple CEO Steve Jobs, and has been described by a former coworker as 'brilliant, dynamic, charismatic' and 'an exceptional freak of nature.'
He changed the way we use the internet, has devised innovative solutions to environmental and sustainability challenges, and has helped fund projects that tap the brightest minds for the betterment of society.
Despite only allowing himself to take a strict six hours of sleep every night and working a reported 100-hour work week, it's unlikely that Musk will accomplish everything on his hefty to-do list by the end of his lifetime.
But who knows? Perhaps that won't even matter if we're all shipped off to Mars by then.
If you know of any other companies that Musk is involved in that are not listed here, send us an email.
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