Why we have daylight-saving time and why 7 states have gotten rid of it or are trying to

  • At 2 a.m. ET on March 10, Americans will “spring forward” by moving their clocks an hour later for daylight-saving time.
  • While “springing forward” means losing an hour of sleep, the sun will be out for longer in the day.
  • The common wisdom about daylight-saving time is that it’s about farming, but it’s not.
  • The history of daylight-saving time goes back to World War I, when it was thought to save energy.
  • Here’s the full history of daylight-saving time and why some warmer states don’t recognise it.

On March 10 at 2 a.m. ET, states that recognise daylight-saving time will “spring forward” and move their clocks one hour ahead.

While “springing forward” means losing an hour of sleep, many of those living in cold northern states appreciate the sun being out for more daytime hours.

Thinkers including Benjamin Franklin, the New Zealand scientist George Hudson, and the Englishman William Willett advocated for plans that would give them more sunlight in the day going all the way back to the 18th and 19th centuries.

Read more: 10 things you didn’t know about Benjamin Franklin, who first suggested an idea similar to Daylight Saving Time

The US and several European countries enacted daylight-saving time during World War I and World War II as an energy-conservation measure and kept it during peacetime.

Today, most of the US, with the exception of Hawaii, Arizona, and many US territories, recognises daylight-saving time. While many northern states appreciate the extra hour of sun, some states that experience unbearable heat in the summer prefer an hour of night instead.

Here’s the full history of daylight-saving time in the US.

The idea for daylight-saving time is attributed to a British man named William Willett, who published a pamphlet in 1907 titled “The Waste of Daylight,” which argued for an extra 80 minutes of sunlight in the summer.

Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty ImagesWilliam Willett.

Source: The History Channel

While Britain didn’t act on Willett’s proposal at the time, Germany implemented daylight-saving time during World War I as a way to conserve electricity by maximizing sunlight.

Source: The History Channel

“They remembered Willett’s idea of moving the clock forward and thus having more daylight during working hours,” the author and historian David Prerau told National Geographic. “While the British were talking about it year after year, the Germans decided to do it more or less by fiat.”

Source: National Geographic

The US also implemented national daylight-saving time during World War I under President Woodrow Wilson in 1918 —but Congress later repealed the measure in 1919.

Hulton Archive/Getty ImagesPresident Woodrow Wilson.

Source: The History Channel

Multiple studies, however, have since concluded that daylight-saving time has no or negligible benefits when it comes to energy conservation.

Source: History Channel

It’s a common misconception that farmers pushed for daylight-saving time in the US to get more time to work outside in the fields.

Source: The History Channel

Because farmers’ schedules revolved around sunlight and not the clock, a change in the amount of sunlight threw their entire workday out of whack. Agricultural groups were behind the effort to repeal daylight-saving time in 1919.

Mark Wilson/Getty Images

Source: The History Channel

After the national repeal of daylight-saving time in 1919, many individual states and cities continued to adjust their clocks twice a year, but at varying days and times, in what Time magazine characterised in 1963 as “a chaos of clocks.”

Source: The History Channel

The History Channel reported that at the time, “passengers on a 35-mile bus ride from Steubenville, Ohio, to Moundsville, West Virginia, passed through seven time changes.”

Source: The History Channel

In 1966, Congress passed the Uniform Time Act, which set daylight-saving time to begin on the last Sunday in April and to end on the last Sunday in October.

Underwood Archives/Getty Images)A reminder to change clocks back from day-light savings time in the fall from Brooklyn, New York, in 1964.

Source: The History Channel

Hawaii, most of Arizona, and a number of US territories do not, however, recognise daylight-saving time — largely because nighttime brings cooler, more bearable temperatures.

Source: National Geographic

“In the summer, everybody loves to have an extra hour of daylight in the evening so they can stay out another hour,” Prerau told National Geographic. “In Arizona, it’s just the opposite. They don’t want more sunlight, they want less.”

ShutterstockSunset over the Arizona desert.

Source: National Geographic

But Florida, another state with warm weather throughout the year, passed a bill in 2018 to observe daylight-saving time year-round — as opposed to just six months out of the year.

Source: National Geographic

Some studies have linked the decrease in sleep associated with daylight-saving time to negative health effects, such as increases in heart attacks, car accidents, and workplace injuries.

Source: Detroit Free Press, Business Insider

Lawmakers in several states, including Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, and Idaho, have introduced legislation this year to end daylight-saving time in their states.


Sources: KING-5 Seattle, Patch, ABC13 Houston, Idaho State Journal

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