Before San Francisco was a bustling tech hub, before it was the center of the hippie universe, and before it became known for its lush hills, much of the area was covered in sand dunes.
Golden Gate Park, the 1,000-acre green space south of the famous bridge that turns 80 years old this year, is located on what was once the largest sand dune ecosystem in the western hemisphere. These dunes spanned seven miles, essentially the entire width of modern-day San Francisco.
About two square miles of dunes still exist today, but the Bay Area has evolved a great deal since then.
Take a look at the maps, paintings, and historical photographs that show the journey of San Francisco.
San Francisco's first residents, members of the Yelamu tribe, began inhabiting the area around 3000 BC. Approximately 150 to 300 people lived in the boundaries of modern-day San Francisco, though they also roamed to neighbouring sites.
A group of Spanish explorers, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived there in 1769. This was the first documented European visit to the San Francisco Bay.
Here's another early 20th century photo of sand dunes, which formed centuries prior, in what is now the 1,000-acre Golden Gate Park:
The Spanish settlers established the Presidio of San Francisco (i.e. the 'Royal Fortress of Saint Francis') in 1776.
The same year, the Mission San Francisco de Asís, the oldest surviving structure in the city, was built. The Catholic church was made of adobe, brush, and wood, which weren't the best materials considering California's earthquakes. Here it is in an 1863 photograph:
The Mission church was part of a complex of buildings, used for housing, agriculture, and manufacturing.