180 Reasons NASA Thinks We Should Have A Moon Base

newt gingrich in space

Republican Newt Gingrich has made the bold promise to establish an American space colony on the Moon by the end of his term (if he is elected). In fact, he even introduced a bill back in 1981 called  the “Northwest Ordinance for Space,” to govern it.

Well Newt, we just want to let you know that NASA has your back. (h/t to @jstrevino)

In fact, they’ve already come up with 180 seperate reasons (.pdf) that the U.S. should establish a base on the moon (in fact, they compiled them back in 2006).

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[slide
permalink=”radio-astronomy-to-map-the-cosmic-web-of-the-universe-1″
title=”Radio astronomy to map the “cosmic web” of the universe”
content=”Radio interferometry antenna arrays, as well as single-dish antennae, located on the far-side of the Moon could provide data on exotic phenomena in the universe: pulsars, black holes, planetary radio emissions, and the remnants of the big bang.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”do-light-oriented-mapping-tests-that-can-be-done-from-the-earth-2″
title=”Do light-oriented mapping tests that can be done from the Earth”
content=”Perform interferometry on lunar surface to observe the universe at UV, optical and infrared wavelengths, including observations of extrasolar planets.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”to-find-black-holes-3″
title=”To find black holes”
content=”Gravitational waves are created from merging supermassive black holes and binary compact objects. Gravitational waves are expected to be detected by ground and space-based systems in the next decade. The Moon offers another stable platform on which to place detection instruments.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”learn-more-about-planetary-movements-4″
title=”Learn more about planetary movements”
content=”Monitor nearby stars over time to detect transit by planets…

Understanding extrasolar planetary systems is critical for gaining perspective on the uniqueness of our own solar system and the Earth within it. Photometric accuracy of instruments on the Moon would be better than
could be obtained from Earth because of the blurring effects of the Earth’s atmosphere. There may be no improvement over spacebased telescopes in this regard.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”conduct-tests-that-take-a-really-long-time-5″
title=”Conduct tests that take a really long time”
content=”Perform long duration measurements of energetic phenomena such as cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Cosmic rays could be measured by large arrays of high-energy cosmic ray detectors placed on the lunar surface. Studying the lunar regolith could provide information on solar energetic particles.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”search-for-new-forms-of-matter-6″
title=”Search for new forms of matter”
content=”Theoretically predicted to be the stablest form of matter, but never observed, is Strange Quark Matter. Such matter might exist in the form of ‘nuggets,’ produced primordially or from neutron stars. These would have large nuclear densities and be capable of passing through the Moon, leaving behind a linear seismic signature. A network of seismometers evenly spaced on the Moon could identify a Strange Quark Nugget
event.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”test-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-7″
title=”Test Einstein’s theory of relativity”
content=”Placing lunar laser transponders at a number of sites on the near side of the Moon would allow the relative motion of the Moon with respect to the Earth to be measured to the millimetre level of accuracy. Laser pulses sent from the Earth to the Moon would trigger coherent return pulses from the lunar laser stations. The responding pulses would be received and timed at Earth tracking stations providing unparalleled orbital
positional accuracy. The Apollo retroreflectors have been used for this purpose, but these yield a very small signal that limits accuracy.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”discover-threats-to-the-earth-and-moon-8″
title=”Discover threats to the Earth and Moon”
content=”Conduct sky surveys from the lunar surface to detect NEOs [near earth objects], determine their orbits, assess their physical characteristics, and evaluate the potential hazard to Earth and the Moon.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”evaluate-the-moons-usefulness-in-further-tests-9″
title=”Evaluate the Moon’s usefulness in further tests”
content=”Carry out a site survey of the Moon and characterise aspects of the lunar environment to determine the best locations for various telescopes. Consider dust contamination, seismic environment, thermal environment,
radio environment, and other variables. Emplace a small telescope in a representative location before investing in a larger, more expensive telescope.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”observe-the-suns-interactions-with-the-stuff-around-it-10″
title=”Observe the Sun’s interactions with the stuff around it”
content=”Image the heliospheric boundaries in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths. Investigate the interactions of the stellar nebula (the heliosphere), in its various stages of formation and evolution, with its local interstellar medium.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”improve-our-understanding-of-solar-weather-11″
title=”Improve our understanding of solar weather”
content=”Perform low-frequency radio astronomy observations of the Sun. Observe transient solar Type II sources to enable identification and tracking of Earth-directed shocks associated with solar particle events and enable measurement of solar wind properties throughout the heliosphere.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”measure-the-earths-magnetism-12″
title=”Measure the Earth’s magnetism”
content=”Place detectors on the Moon or on satellites orbiting the Moon to provide regular measurements of the Earth’s magnetotail, which crosses the lunar orbit for approximately five days of every month. Arrays of detectors could be used to study the small scale shape, structure and dynamics of plasmoids, as well as other tail
regions and boundaries. Active release experiments, observed from the Moon, could also be used to measure plasmoid transport.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-the-plasma-that-surrounds-the-moon-13″
title=”Study the plasma that surrounds the moon”
content=”The Moon perturbs the surrounding plasma environment. As an absorber, the Moon shadows solar electrons, and the resulting position of the shadow can be used to determine the convection electric field. In addition, lunar pick-up ions that have been detected in the magnetotail can be used as a unique tracer to track transport in the magnetotail.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”analyze-solar-wind-14″
title=”analyse solar wind”
content=”The solar wind reflects the composition of the Sun and physcial processes in the corona.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”take-images-of-space-where-military-and-commercial-aircraft-operate-15″
title=”Take images of space where military and commercial aircraft operate”
content=”Photon and particle imaging of the global ionosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, and magnetosphere can be accomplished with instrumentation located either on the lunar surface, in lunar orbit, or in other orbital locations via trans-lunar assets.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”perform-high-frequency-observations-of-the-sun-16″
title=”Perform high-frequency observations of the Sun”
content=”Perform high-frequency (X-ray and gamma ray) and optical observations of the Sun. Uninterrupted observations can be extended to up to a half lunar day, or 14 Earth days (the duration of the East-West
passage of an active region of the Sun).

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”analyze-the-suns-role-in-climate-change-17″
title=”analyse the Sun’s role in climate change”
content=”Collect simultaneous observations of the earthshine (photometry and spectra), particle flux, and solar irradiance covering the electromagnetic and charged particle spectrum. The earthshine gives an
instantaneous measure of the Earth’s reflectance, and over a month, the total reflectance (Bond albedo) of Earth can be measured. The irradiance plus Bond albedo gives the net sunlight reaching Earth, and sun-directed hardware gives a broad spectrum of near-Earth measurements of solar activity.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”use-the-moon-as-a-remote-sensing-platform-for-sensing-the-earths-electromagnetic-activity-18″
title=”Use the Moon as a remote sensing platform for sensing the Earth’s electromagnetic activity”
content=”Observe electromagnetic behaviour due to solar activity, and understand any resulting damaging behaviour. Gain understanding of magnetosphere interactions with lower regions of the atmosphere, with the
objective of developing predictive and mitigation capability.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”create-new-maps-19″
title=”Create new maps”
content=”Form Synthetic Aperature Radar images of the Earth from the Moon’s surface using the relative motion of the Earth with respect to Moon. utilise multiple antennas to form a microwave interferometer with a long baseline and extreme stability. This configuration also allows bistatic operation for remote sensing of complex terrestrial processes.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”analyze-the-composition-of-the-earths-atmosphere-20″
title=”analyse the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere”
content=”Use multispectral passive sensors with 1-km horizontal resolution to cover the UVATIR range for global mapping of tropospheric and stratospheric composition including ozone, CO, NO2, HCHO, BrO, aerosols, CO2, and CH4.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”analyze-how-the-earth-responds-to-solar-activity-21″
title=”analyse how the Earth responds to solar activity”
content=”Make simultaneous observations of the Earth and Sun from 60 nm to 1 micron to observe the effect of solar flares and coronal mass ejections on the Earth’s atmosphere.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”determine-how-the-earth-reflects-light-22″
title=”Determine how the Earth reflects light”
content=”Make observations at many wavelengths between 0.34 and 1.5 microns to determine the BRDF [bi-directional reflectivity distribution function] of the Earth at the special angles that are available from a lunar perspective. In particular, observe the Earth ‘Hotspot’ when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are aligned in this order.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”figure-out-how-ocean-color-relates-to-marine-health-23″
title=”Figure out how ocean colour relates to marine health”
content=”Results will afford an understanding of the physiological status and health of marine ecosystems, especially those that are subsurface.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”map-the-earth-from-a-whole-disc-perspective-24″
title=”Map the Earth from a whole-disc perspective”
content=”Data from a MODIS/ASTER/Hyperion – like instrument of the whole Earth disc would provide information on land surface mineralogy, land use/land cover change, and biomass/ecosystem monitoring. These datasets (depending on spatial and spectral resolution) could also be useful for observing ocean colour and sea surface
temperature, as well as for atmospheric studies such as detecting, mapping, and monitoring the large dust emission events in China and the Sahara in near-real time.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-climate-history-25″
title=”Study climate history”
content=”Monitor variability of solar energy output for century to millennium time scales in borehole with temperature string.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”assess-how-the-earths-ice-surfaces-react-to-climate-change-26″
title=”Assess how the Earth’s ice surfaces react to climate change”
content=”Assess flow velocity of major ice bodies (Greenland, Antarctica) with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). Monitor sea ice extent and concentration in the polar regions.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”monitor-volcanoes-and-other-hot-spots-on-earth-27″
title=”Monitor volcanoes and other “hot-spots” on Earth”
content=”Perform multispectral thermal infrared observations (2 – 14 microns) of the whole Earth disc with lunar-based sensors. These observation are not dependent on local ‘day/night’ conditions. With 1km/pixel spatial resolution, observations could provide near instananeous detection and monitoring of volcanic eruptions and fires.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”calculate-the-earths-albedo-effect-28″
title=”Calculate the Earth’s albedo effect”
content=”Earth shine (brightness of the unlit portion of the Moon as seen from Earth) has been demonstrated to be related to Earth albedo and implicitly to cloud amount, optical thickness etc. Earth shine measurements
have been made with Earth-based instruments for decades. The objective here is to measure true Earth albedo (and cloud amount, etc.) from the Moon and calibrate these with current and past Earthbased Earth shine measurements.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-how-lightning-and-climate-are-related-29″
title=”Study how lightning and climate are related”
content=”Perform continuous monitoring of lightning of the Earth disk presented to the Moon. Use this data to develop a complete lightning climatology, i.e. an understanding of lightning as a function of time of day, season, and location.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”figure-out-what-the-moon-is-made-of-30″
title=”Figure out what the moon is made of”
content=”Determine the internal structure and dynamics of the Moon. Data obtained will address core-mantlecrust transitions, phase heterogeneity, degree of seismic activity, the foci for Moonquakes, lower crust/upper mantle interactions, planetary anisotropy, and seismic hazards for future experiments and structures.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”learn-more-about-the-moons-surface-31″
title=”Learn more about the Moon’s surface”
content=”Determine the composition and evolution of the lunar crust and mantle. Synthesize data from both remote sensing and sample analysis to inventory and map rock types, determine their sequence and structure, and model crustal evolution in space and time. Use craters and basins to access varying crustal levels. Evaluate
sample types from selected impact basins (e.g., South Pole-Aitken), especially with a view to probing the lower crust and/or mantle composition. Study samples of young lava flows and pyroclastic deposits to understand mantle evolution.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”describe-the-physical-state-of-the-moon-32″
title=”Describe the physical state of the moon”
content=”characterise the lunar geophysical state variables, including the lunar gravitational potential field (in detail), heat flow, lunar rotational fluctuations, lunar tides and deformation, and the present and historic magnetic fields.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-lunar-volatilities-33″
title=”Study lunar volatilities”
content=”Determine the origin of lunar volatiles, including those from endogenous (e.g. from the lunar interior) and exogenous (delivered from outside the Moon) processes, and the redistribution of these volatiles by geologic processes operating over time, including escape from the Moon. This will lead to predictive models of the distribution of volatiles on a broad scale.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”determine-what-geological-materials-are-present-on-the-moons-surface-34″
title=”Determine what geological materials are present on the moon’s surface”
content=”characterise the broad geology of the Moon from detailed study of the lunar regolith. The lunar regolith at any site primarily represents a sampling of local rock units, but a minor part represents contributions from more sites. Thus the regolith gives some degree of statistical sampling of rocks over an appreciable area.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”watch-what-happens-when-asteroids-crash-into-the-moon-35″
title=”Watch what happens when asteroids crash into the moon”
content=”Study the physical and compositional effects of hypervelocity impact using lunar craters, from micron-sized zap pits to multi-ring basins. Study excavation and modification stages of impact process and their physical and compositional effects. Study the transport and mixing of materials as a result of impacts. Study the morphology of freshly formed craters and of their ejecta distribution.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”trace-the-history-of-the-moons-craters-36″
title=”Trace the history of the Moon’s craters”
content=”characterise the flux and crater production function (impactor flux as a function of size) of impacting bodies in the Earth-Moon system, over the course of geologic history. emphasise time variations in flux of objects, the nature and origin of the impactors and their possible role in delivering volatiles, the nature of the late heavy
bombardment (cataclysm), and the densities and ages of major lunar basins.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”research-clues-about-the-earths-planetary-history-based-on-the-moons-craters-and-materials-37″
title=”Research clues about the Earth’s planetary history based on the Moon’s craters and materials”
content=”Determine the timing and composition of impactors to study the impact history of the Moon. Look at lunar cratering flux, regoliths, and ages of specific lunar craters and basins. Search for material impact-ejected from Earth and other bodies to research characteristics of the early Earth and the origin of life between 0.55 billion and 4.4 billion years.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”look-for-geological-indicators-of-galactic-climate-change-38″
title=”Look for geological indicators of galactic climate change”
content=”Investigate records of past solar particles and irradiance, galactic cosmic rays, and dust from the interstellar medium that are preserved in lunar regolith. This is a record in time, energy, composition, and ionization state. Some of this record consists of buried regolith sections which may have preserved a snapshot of solar radiation, cosmic rays, and the interstellar medium properties at a specific and easily datable time. A series of such time capsules back to 4Gy or earlier would be a record of solar wind, energetic particles, and interstellar dust through time. Finding this series involves searching for identifiable layers of ‘fossil regolith’ that can be dated to track changes in the Sun and galactic cosmic rays through time, and movement of the cosmic dust cloud. This objective will support heliophysics investigations and could be synergistic with the use of the lunar regolith for resource utilization.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”use-moon-geology-to-study-that-of-other-planets-39″
title=”Use moon geology to study that of other planets”
content=”Determine lunar regolith properties, such as structure (layering and depth variations) and composition, and its modes of formation and evolution.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”find-out-how-things-erode-in-space-40″
title=”Find out how things erode in space”
content=”characterise the lunar regolith exposed at lunar surfaces of various ages. Evaluate the uppersurface stratigraphy, and sample regolith from terranes of diverse composition and age. Map regolith maturity and identify regions that contain ancient regolith.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”determine-what-forces-impact-the-moon-41″
title=”Determine what forces impact the Moon”
content=”Determine the concentration, chemistry, phase relations, temperatures, geotechnical properties, photometry, morphology, topography, distribution and inventory of lunar volatiles. Of particular interest, characterise the volatile phase in the permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”figure-out-what-happens-on-airless-planets-42″
title=”Figure out what happens on airless planets.”
content=”Understand surface transport of volatile atoms and molecules in the lunar environment, including to polar cold trap.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”find-natural-resources-like-water-or-metals-43″
title=”Find natural resources, like water or metals”
content=”Locate and quantify (develop maps at appropriate scales) surface/near-surface deposits of potentially valuable resources, including both minerals and volatiles (especially water).

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”build-a-research-facility-on-the-moon-to-prevent-contamination-of-samples-44″
title=”Build a research facility on the Moon to prevent contamination of samples”
content=”Provide the capability to curate samples on the Moon before transporting them to Earth. This involves protecting them from contamination while on the Moon and during transport to Earth. It also requires development of an information system to keep track of samples (collection locality, specimen type, location in curatorial facility, etc.). This applies to biological as well as geological samples, and to samples of the
products of resource extraction experiments.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”develop-instruments-that-will-automatically-analyze-moon-samples-45″
title=”Develop instruments that will automatically analyse moon samples”
content=”Provide instrumentation on the lunar surface to serve a screening function for lunar sample collection. Have the ability to select the most valuable samples for return to Earth.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-what-happens-to-people-in-space-for-a-long-time-46″
title=”Study what happens to people in space for a long time”
content=”This research aims to understand the longterm effects of the lunar environment on materials. Unique aspects of the lunar environment to be studied include fractional gravity, radiation bombardment, thermal cycling, and dust. Understand the individual as well as cumulative effects of each of these variables, such that results can be extrapolated to the Mars case.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”develop-new-materials-47″
title=”Develop new materials”
content=”Use the lunar environment, specifically 1/6 g and ultra-high vacuum, to develop new types of materials foruse in space or on Earth. Investigate the use of lunar resources in materials processing.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”study-how-materials-age-in-space-over-time-48″
title=”Study how materials age in space over time”
content=”A thorough study of spacecraft materials exposure effects in the lunar environment could be performed through photographic surveys, in-situ measurements of materials properties, and/or the return of spacecraft materials for analysis on Earth.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”investigate-how-long-term-stays-affect-human-health-49″
title=”Investigate how long-term stays affect human health”
content=”Conduct fundamental research to understand the physiological and biological effects of the lunar environment on humans. Effects of fractional gravity, radiation bombardment, and dust on biological systems must be investigated through lunar cell, animal, and human research. Understand the fundamental physiological and biological effects on humans (such as bone and muscle loss, diminished immune efficiency, slower wound healing, human nutrition needs, and poorer cognitive performance, in addition to pointing out unanticipated effects of the exploration environment), as well as the effects on the fundamental biological processes and subsystems upon which health depends. With appropriate equipment and facilities, the lunar environment can provide a range of gravitational data points from 1/6 to 1g and beyond, to help understand the effects of gravity levels other than 1g.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f0db11569bedde35d000039″
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]
[slide
permalink=”see-how-spending-time-in-space-affects-athleticism-50″
title=”See how spending time in space affects athleticism”
content=”Study the human performance and human factors effects of the lunar environment, including partial gravity, dust, and radiation. Human factors research aims to understand whole body coordination strategies, including balance, posture, locomotion, work capability, endurance, and speed of humans in fractional gravity, and the effect of isolation and communication lag on performance and mission coordination. In conjunction, the impact of countermeasures, such as improved mission tasking, rovers and other tools, and EVA suits can be investigated. Radiation research would investigate the effects of largeparticle bombardment on human behaviour and cognitive function.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e7fd0a26bb3f77e7100002c”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”study-the-effects-of-extreme-isolation-on-the-psyche-51″
title=”Study the effects of extreme isolation on the psyche”
content=”Lunar crews will be operating in an environment that is truly remote from Earth, especially on missions on the far side of the Moon. Such isolation may cause unprecedented psychological stress that could be mitigated by appropriate crew selection, mission control procedures, habitat design, diagnosis and treatment protocols, and other techniques. In order to develop appropriate techniques, first an understanding must be gained of the psychological impacts of isolation on individuals and groups.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22d945ecad04997400001e”
caption=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”try-out-clothing-vehicles-and-equipment-meant-for-space-life-52″
title=”Try out clothing, vehicles, and equipment meant for space life”
content=”Understand the effects of vehicle, habitat, and EVA suit pressures and oxygen concentrations on human health. Consider the whole habitat, closed ECLS environment (not just pressures). Vehicles and habitats will likely operate at 8.0 psia and up to 34% oxygen while suits will operate at 4.3 psia and 100% oxygen.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4cebcc31ccd1d57b630a0000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”test-how-germs-and-viruses-respond-to-the-lunar-environment-53″
title=”Test how germs and viruses respond to the lunar environment”
content=”Study the impact of the lunar environment on multiple generations of terrestrial life forms that impact human health. Investigate the fidelity of replication of human microbial flora for variants, increase in virulence, and
development of antibiotic resistance over thousands of generations (100 days = 5000 generations for some organisms).

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ed79ac569beddc64000001c”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”test-how-plants-and-animals-develop-in-space-54″
title=”Test how plants and animals develop in space”
content=”Conduct scientific research on animals or cells to determine the likely effects of the lunar environment on the ability of humans to reproduce normally (including embryogenesis, embryonic and fetal development, parturition, and post-partum growth and development). Areas of particular concern include whether critical periods of exposure to gravity exist for normal development; if there are effects from space radiation; and what the toxicity is of the unavoidable exposure to lunar dust.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d5d45bb49e2aec33a010000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”invent-space-style-medicine-55″
title=”Invent space-style medicine.”
content=”Develop and deploy in-situ and teleoperated medical practices to deal with common ailments (e.g. colds, flu) and possibly more serious problems (e.g. muscle strains, broken bones) . Tools include tele-operated medical
equipment and practices, diagnosis, therapy, and treatment. Quantify space-normal physiology and biochemistry and monitor crew physiology during IVA/EVA. Vaildate computational models for comparison to 1g and enable prediction, diagnosis, and treatment.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dfb5c0c4bd7c81c6e190000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”develop-recreation-for-the-moon-56″
title=”Develop recreation for the Moon”
content=”Provide leisure activities, in the form of arts, entertainment, and recreation, for people living on and visiting the Moon. Initially, passtimes may consist of activities similar to Earth entertainment (satellite TV, movies,
music, and books). Over time, take advantage of the lunar environment for unique activities such as 1/6-g sports and games. Physical sports and games can be designed to materially enhance and benefit specific aspects of physical fitness, strenth, and endurance that will benefit the health and productivity of long-duration explorers in the outpost and settlement phases of lunar exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e427ddc6bb3f7b00d00000b”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”study-different-locations-on-the-moon-57″
title=”Study different locations on the Moon”
content=”Within strategic lunar regions, characterise environmental hazards associated with extreme temperature fluctuations to a level of detail sufficient to design appropriate mitigation strategies and technologies. Include localised effects due to topagraphy.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22da8369beddba5b000034″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”further-sciences-understanding-of-how-the-moon-moves-58″
title=”Further science’s understanding of how the Moon moves”
content=”Within strategic lunar regions, perform scientific investigations to study and characterise size, frequency, and velocity/energy of the lunar micrometeorite environment. Understand the effect of micrometeorite impact on the strength characteristics of the soil.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e47b4386bb3f7147000000b”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”study-lunar-dust-59″
title=”Study lunar dust”
content=”Within strategic lunar regions, study the properties of lunar dust, including size and shape classification, adhesion, chemical reactivity and composition, bio-toxicity, dielectric and optical response, interaction with
the plasma environment, suspension properties, and abrasiveness. In addition, characterise dust transport and dust rheology to understand the effects to lunar surface operations such as solar array use, radiators, seals, etc.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f0b197769beddb36600003e”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”study-moon-soil-60″
title=”Study Moon soil”
content=”Within strategic lunar regions, characterise traditional geotechnical properties of lunar surface materials, including soil mechanics, tribology of regolith materials, effects on hard surfaces/cutting edges/brushes, electrostatic effects, shear and bearing strength, compactiondepth distribution, granular cohesion, granular transport/flow properties, and bulk density sufficient to support lunar civil engineering and excavation, traction, grinding, mixing and segregation in resource utilization. To accomplish granular materials modelling, also characterise particle friction, attraction, elastic, fracture/strength, and size and shape properties.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4da85c8fcadcbb0035020000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”design-better-landing-gear-61″
title=”Design better landing gear”
content=”Investigate quantity, distribution, and trajectory of lunar fines and other ejecta due to vehicle landing and launch operations to determine adequacy of mitigation strategies prior to emplacing hardware on the lunar surface in close proximity.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22dbdaeab8ea8c12000028″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”investigate-the-lunar-atmosphere-before-its-contaminated-by-human-presence-62″
title=”Investigate the lunar atmosphere before it’s contaminated by human presence”
content=”utilise early missions to characterise the pristine lunar atmosphere before increased robotic and human activity can contaminate it. To document the lunar atmosphere in its pristine state, early observational studies of the lunar atmosphere should be made, along with studies of the sources of the atmosphere and the processes responsible for its loss. These include a full compositional survey of all major and trace components of the lunar atmosphere down to a 1 per cent mixing ratio, determination of the volatile transport to the poles, documentation of sunrise/sunset dynamics, determination of the variability of indigenous and exogenous sources, and determination of atmospheric loss rates by various processes.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22dc4269beddac4f000045″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”study-lightning-on-the-moon-if-it-even-exists-on-a-large-scale-63″
title=”Study lightning on the moon, if it even exists on a large scale”
content=”characterise the amount of lunar lightining. If sufficient lunar lightning exits, evaluate its potential as a power source for lunar operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22dd396bb3f76320000033″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”make-a-topographic-map-of-the-moon-64″
title=”Make a topographic map of the Moon”
content=”Create detailed topographic maps of the Moon, showing the surface and subsurface features, including permanently shadowed regions, polar regions, large features, dust depth and shading, illumination characterizaion, and Earth line of sight characterization.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22de13ecad049b7400001f”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”investigate-how-telecommunication-and-computer-equipment-function-around-the-moon-65″
title=”Investigate how telecommunication and computer equipment function around the Moon”
content=”Perform scientific investigations to study and characterise the lunar magnetic field and plasma environment to determine their effects on communications, instrumentation and computer operations. The interaction of the near lunar electromagnetic and plasma environment are complicated by variations in solar UV intensity, the ambient plasma, formation of dust plasmas, surface composition and topology, magnetic anomolies, and the lunar wake.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ed7cdf7ecad045927000004″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”map-the-gravity-of-the-moon-66″
title=”Map the gravity of the Moon”
content=”Perform scientific investigations to study and characterise the lunar gravity field environment to determine the effects of mass concentration on the gravity local field.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f075a6cecad04377e000014″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”draw-a-seismic-lunar-map-67″
title=”Draw a seismic lunar map”
content=”Perform scientific investigations to study and characterise lunar seismic activity to create a seismic map.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d939a7c4bd7c89045110000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-radiation-shielding-to-protect-lunar-residents-68″
title=”Develop radiation shielding to protect lunar residents”
content=”Solar and galactic radiation impacting the Moon must be managed in such a way as to minimize its impact on crew health and surface operations. This will involve materials and techniques to shield astronauts and sensitive electronics from typical radiation levels, and additional measures during times of intense solar activity. Material surfaces, particularly organic polymers, are also subject to degradation by high energy electromagnetic and particle radiation, and must be protected as well. This objective is synergistic with science objectives for studying regolith radiation history and life support objectives that identify regolith as a potential shielding mechanism.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4cdc54364bd7c8c079070000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”reduce-interference-of-lunar-dust-in-equipment-69″
title=”Reduce interference of lunar dust in equipment”
content=”Using data on the properties of lunar dust, design crew and system protection so as to reduce the interference of dust. Minimize dust deposition and adhesion on equipment and EVA suits. Develop techniques for self-cleaning of critical equipment to minimize adhesion of dust.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4aeb2e210000000000df8279″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-equipment-that-will-protect-astronauts-from-small-meteorites-70″
title=”Develop equipment that will protect astronauts from small meteorites”
content=”Demonstrate mitigation strategies to protect surface infrastructure and vehicle systems from micrometeorite bombardment during surface operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22e00269bedd2672000000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”design-equipment-that-will-allow-people-to-survive-under-the-harshest-conditions-71″
title=”Design equipment that will allow people to survive under the harshest conditions.”
content=”Using data on the lunar thermal environment, design crew and system protection so as to ensure survival under the worst possible environmental extremes coupled with the maximum creditable equipment failure.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4de79fccccd1d5927a060000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”perfect-space-takeoffs-72″
title=”Perfect space takeoffs”
content=”Demonstrate and deploy a mitigation strategy to protect surface infrastructure and vehicle systems from lunar fines and other ejecta during launch and landing operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22e06ceab8eaae2100001d”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”monitor-space-weather-73″
title=”Monitor space weather”
content=”Observe the sun, its corona and space weather in real-time to detect solar and galactic events that will affect operations on the lunar surface. Implement warning systems to notify lunar inhabitants of such events. Implement mitigation techniques to protect lunar inhabitants, in the event of significant space weather activity.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d2384494bd7c8fc690d0000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”learn-how-to-deal-with-conditions-very-different-from-those-on-the-earth-74″
title=”Learn how to deal with conditions very different from those on the Earth”
content=”Establish a lunar environmental monitoring station to measure real-time changes in environmental variables such as temperature, vibration, dust collection, radiation, seismic activity, and gravity.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e1f6dcd49e2ae3075280000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”keep-track-of-meteors-75″
title=”Keep track of meteors”
content=”Monitor the solar system, especially the near Earth/Moon environment for meteors, micrometeors, and other space debris that could potentially impact the lunar surface.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c28a6e67f8b9a7419f70000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”invent-long-term-space-living-habitats-76″
title=”Invent long-term space living habitats”
content=”During short and long-duration stays on the Moon, individuals will need a habitat that will protect them from the lunar environment. A number of implementation strategies are possible for this habitat, including placing habitats in lava tubes or using lunar regolith as protection from radiation, meteorite impact, and lunar seismic activity. Inside the habitats, basic life support and recreational activities should be provided to the crew. Over time, the life support systems should move from open to closed systems, with food production, water and air regeneration, and waste management systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e4a701d6bb3f76d46000002″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”figure-out-whats-necessary-to-grow-plants-in-space-77″
title=”Figure out what’s necessary to grow plants in space”
content=”Agricultural systems include the operation of a greenhouse or farm using either imported soil from Earth, lunar regolith, or hydroponic systems as the growing medium. Products to be grown include food for inhabitants and plant matter for bioregenerative life support systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c07b19d7f8b9a9e7c550500″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”maintain-irrigation-systems-on-the-moon-78″
title=”Maintain irrigation systems on the Moon”
content=”Develop aqueous management systems that allow for safe water storage and, with increased mission duration, offer water recovery from wastewater streams.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e7a0087eab8ea172d000005″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”invent-better-air-management-systems-for-space-79″
title=”Invent better air management systems for space”
content=”Develop operational air revitalization systems that offer increased level of fidelity from removal of carbon dioxide and trace contaminants to recovering oxygen from the waste carbon dioxide stream.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c4ee69b7f8b9aeb26b80000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”innovate-waste-management-for-the-lunar-environment-80″
title=”Innovate waste management for the lunar environment”
content=”Waste management systems will need to store, process, and dispose of human and manufactured waste in an appropriate manner. Ideally, as much waste as possible will be recycled to have minimal impact on the lunar environment.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e8df95beab8ea6638000017″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”invent-sustainable-space-living-environments-81″
title=”invent sustainable space living environments”
content=”Demonstrate environmental control and life support (ECLS) viability and operationability of (first partially) closed life support systems with water and air regeneration and waste processing systems. Implement intelligent monitoring and control over life support system components to reduce the crew overhead required to operate advanced systems. maximise the system-level advantages (e.g. mass and volume) of advanced ECLS while ensuring reliable operation and minimising crew time maintaining and operating these systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e4a700c6bb3f7303e000006″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”determine-how-to-incorporate-plants-into-space-based-life-support-82″
title=”Determine how to incorporate plants into space-based life support”
content=”A number of plant and bacterial species have been identified for studying fundamental and applied topics related to the long term effects of the lunar environment on processes associated with bioregenerative life support systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e8342c96bb3f7154800000d”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”testing-existing-life-support-equipment-83″
title=”Testing existing life support equipment”
content=”Monitor the internal and external environment for gasses, and monitor the aqueous environment for chemical and microbial species. Wherever possible, monitor these conditions autonomously.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e5cc6be69bedd2b52000026″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-habitats-that-function-with-less-gravity-84″
title=”Develop habitats that function with less gravity”
content=”Gravity level has a strong bearing on both fire detection and suppression strategies. Strategies for microgravity are quite different from the ones used for normal-g environment. Experiments can be conducted on the lunar surface to evaluate mitigation strategies and choose materials for construction of habitats and equipment.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22e4bc69bedd996a000020″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”establish-an-emergency-response-system-that-functions-under-lunar-conditions-85″
title=”Establish an emergency response system that functions under lunar conditions”
content=”Provide support services such as emergency response, rescue, repair, reuse/recycle, and other logistics support, for use by all entities undertaking activities on the Moon. Develop systems that can have maximum
extensibility for use on Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22e54aeab8ea7235000007″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”create-a-standardized-lunar-reference-system-86″
title=”Create a standardized lunar reference system”
content=”Develop and implement a globally accepted lunar reference coordinate system. utilise this system in planning and executing lunar exploration and habitation activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c97c0157f8b9a330bda0700″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”build-infrastructure-on-the-moon-87″
title=”Build infrastructure on the moon”
content=”Deploy a Moon-based infrastructure to service space based assets. The infrastructure should be able to service assets in cis-lunar space and other strategic locations in the Earth/Moon system (such as L2). The infrastructure could be capable of refueling, maintenance, and other service capabilities needed to support ongoing space operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dee556e49e2ae6a26030000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”supply-the-moon-with-an-inventory-of-goods-from-earth-88″
title=”Supply the Moon with an inventory of goods from Earth”
content=”Establish warehouses on the Moon to store supplies coming from Earth before they are needed in lunar operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d6ffd32cadcbbe743050000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”figure-out-what-standards-are-needed-for-safety-and-survival-on-the-moon-89″
title=”Figure out what standards are needed for safety and survival on the Moon”
content=”Develop protocols, practices, procedures, and processes for lunar operations. Protocols will be necessary for EVA operations, utilising automation assistance, and other interior and exterior lunar surface activities. Wherever possible, protocols should be consistent with the operational requirements and constraints of a Mars mission.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4aaf9d8ecd0464751f7b971a”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”learn-how-to-survive-in-order-to-go-to-mars-90″
title=”Learn how to survive in order to go to Mars”
content=”Engage in operations testing of techniques for living and working in the lunar environment. Individuals living on the Moon should learn how to do everyday things, such as cook, clean, and live their daily lives in the lunar habitat. Techniques must also be refined for basic work tasks, such as picking up/putting down items, assembly and disassembly, etc. Activity timescales should be applicable to early crewed Mars missions.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e171680ccd1d55669080000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”initiate-space-based-operations-management-91″
title=”Initiate space-based operations management”
content=”Establish crew-centered planning, scheduling, and control of mission operations, such that crews can plan their close-in operations activities in real-time. Earth-based ground control should only be utilized for mid-term and long-term planning, to serve as help desk and trouble shooting support, and to perform flight data reduction, analysis, and management.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f21c3b6eab8ea4b0a000042″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”learn-how-to-repair-stuff-in-space-92″
title=”Learn how to repair stuff in space”
content=”Develop and demonstrate techniques and processes required to repair lunar surface equipment (e.g. habitats, transportation, life support, etc.) without use of an Earth to Moon logistics train. Provide the capability to manufacture parts as required to accomplish equipment repairs. Techniques and operational experience gained during lunar missions is directly extensible to future Mars missions.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4efbafc269bedde45e00000d”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”conduct-tests-that-would-reduce-the-risks-of-going-to-mars-93″
title=”Conduct tests that would reduce the risks of going to Mars”
content=”Conduct Mars analogue tests of protocols, practices, procedures and processes, as well as certain technologies, that would be used in carrying out Mars mission operations. The most important aspects of Mars missions to simulate are 1) the increased autonomy required, 2) the concomitant increase in required supporting automation and 3) the increased stress associated with the combination of long exposure to a hazardous environment and increased psychological isolation due to distance.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4eba813feab8ea802e00002e”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”design-better-space-travel-training-programs-94″
title=”Design better space-travel training programs”
content=”Realistic training systems can prepare crews to handle unplanned emergencies or situations. Crews must be able to effectively deal with these situations to ensure safe operations. Any training which can be done remotely from Earth will be much less expensive than performing exercises on the Moon. If this technology is easily adaptable to the Mars environment, crews for future exploration missions can also be trained using the same systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4eb3ff96ecad04677600006e”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-technologies-to-test-for-life-95″
title=”Develop technologies to test for life”
content=”Astrobiology protocols and technologies can be uniquely tested on the Moon since it is devoid of life. These technologies can be used to test for life elsewhere in the solar system. Operational tests away from the Earth
provide more relevant validation of approach.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e89bcae69beddad45000018″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”establish-policies-to-protect-planetary-environments-96″
title=”Establish policies to protect planetary environments”
content=”Evaluate planetary protection protocols by first characterising the biological effects of human activity on the lunar surface. Develop and test decontamination of astronauts and equipmement returning from the Moon, to control forward and backward contamination, as precursor to human return from Mars. Include consideration of lunar commerce when designing and implementing such regulations so as not to unduly cripple lunar commerce.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e4290faeab8ea8a2b00002b”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-a-lunar-power-grid-97″
title=”Develop a lunar power grid”
content=”Develop power generation, storage, and distribution technologies and systems to satisfy the energy demands of lunar habitats, equipment and infrastructure, and mobility systems. Over time, the power system capacity should grow to meet the growing needs of lunar operations. Power can be generated on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit, and over time lunar resources may be utilized for power systems. maximise the potential for these systems to be used for Mars exploration missions.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22e9ec6bb3f7c336000024″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”figure-out-how-to-get-electricity-from-the-earth-to-the-moon-98″
title=”Figure out how to get electricity from the Earth to the Moon”
content=”Lunar base power, even during the two week lunar night, could be provided by laser or microwavepower beaming from Earth. Power could be relayed from two different Earth sites, to provide redundancy, through GEO satellites, to the lunar surface.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e4275ececad047858000022″
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[slide
permalink=”generate-power-from-the-moon-maybe-even-for-profit-99″
title=”Generate power from the Moon (maybe even for profit)”
content=”Generate power on the Moon or in lunar orbit and distribute that power to Earth and space applications. In-situ lunar power sources such as photovoltaic cells could enable power production and distribution to become a profitable commercial enterprise based on the Moon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dfa5f1c4bd7c8af4b070000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”design-an-interplanetary-communications-system-100″
title=”Design an interplanetary communications system”
content=”Implement telecommunications capabilites to meet lunar needs that can evolve to meet Mars needs. This capability should be scalable to meet lunar requirements as they expand in scope. The networks should support communications functions such as voice, data, and image transmission to other lunar locations (including to teleoperated equipment), to Earth, and possibly to other space locations. Interoperability provides flexibility to use commercial and international partner systems and to accomodate new technology as it becomes available.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ed67a0beab8ea601b000027″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”automate-the-moon-from-afar-101″
title=”Automate the Moon from afar”
content=”Implement communication capabilites including telemetry, tracking, and control (TT&C) and mission data transmission to meet early lunar robotic needs. Robotic mission communications are either direct to Earth or relayed depending on where the mission goes. Early communication systems can be used to test technology for subsequent systems that meet human mission needs.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22eab9ecad04a81000001e”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-lunar-telecom-102″
title=”Develop lunar telecom”
content=”Implement communication capabilites including telemetry, tracking, and control (TT&C), voice, video, and mission data transmission between the Earth and lunar surface and orbiting assets for human missions. Communications are either direct to Earth or relayed depending on where the mission goes.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dfa622bccd1d5e8371f0000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”show-the-public-what-astronauts-are-doing-103″
title=”Show the public what astronauts are doing”
content=”Provide a communications network capable of transmitting commands, high quality imagery, video, and sensor data in real time for mission and public outreach use. This network can also support real-time Earth-based teleoperation of robotic systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22ebe169beddc409000007″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”develop-navigation-systems-that-will-help-astronauts-go-to-mars-104″
title=”Develop navigation systems that will help astronauts go to Mars”
content=”Provide position, navigation and timing for lunar operations, including orbit determination, orbital maneuvers, precision landing, hazard avoidance, surface movement, surface mapping, and scientific investigations. Provide global access and persistent coverage, possibly combined with a communications infrastructure. Develop lunar PNT capabilities to be extensible to Mars operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/56b9b9143595ff472fe8bb00″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”take-automated-guidance-systems-to-the-next-level-105″
title=”Take automated guidance systems to the next level”
content=”Provide standardized guidance hardware and software components for the family of exploration systems. Guidance should become autonomous and highly automated as part of the exploration Command, Control,
Communication and Information (C3I) framework.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e89b43f69bedd021d000058″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”cultivate-better-space-vehicle-tracking-abilities-106″
title=”Cultivate better space vehicle tracking abilities”
content=”Provide services for tracking vehicles in space and on the surface including 1- and 2-way range, position, and velocity, to support navigation. Standardized tracking services are part of the exploration Command, Control, Communication and Information (C3I) framework.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e734ce16bb3f7cc77000003″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”establish-measurements-of-time-iin-space-107″
title=”Establish measurements of time iin space”
content=”Provide time services including a solar systemwide time scale, time dissemination, and calibration. Standardized timing services are part of the exploration Command, Control, Communication and Information (C3I) framework supporting precision navigation, mission operations, and science data time tagging.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4eb04f466bb3f75f44000039″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”innovate-methods-of-vehicle-movement-in-space-108″
title=”Innovate methods of vehicle movement in space”
content=”Provide attitude control capabilities including inertial, locally fixed, and relative to proximity vehicles for transit, stationkeeping, descent/ascent, and rendezvous and docking operations. Standardized attitude control services are part of the exploration Command, Control, Communication and Information (C3I) framework.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e73bb4e6bb3f7952d00004b”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”create-space-s-o-s-109″
title=”Create space S-O-S”
content=”Provide emergency position determination and distress alerting for surface users to aid in rescues similar to the Committee On Space Research-Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (COSPAS-SARSAT) international satellite-based search and rescue system.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4b8c26857f8b9abf4be20200″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”normalize-lunar-travel-110″
title=”Normalize lunar travel”
content=”Provide transportation for travel between the surface of the Earth to the surface of the Moon and points in between (i.e. from Earth orbit to lunar orbit). Ideally, at least two crew transportation systems and a number of cargo systems (including a heavy lifter) should be developed.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e4a705eeab8ea142300001a”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”invent-automated-space-ship-landing-systems-111″
title=”Invent automated space ship landing systems”
content=”Demonstrate an autonomous lander, with technologies such as autonomous guidance and navigation and control for landing, including hazard avoidance and precision landing capability. utilise the lander, if possible without a human operator, for routine landing operations.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22f568eab8eab344000018″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”research-use-of-cryogenic-fluids-and-gasses-in-space-travel-112″
title=”Research use of cryogenic fluids and gasses in space travel”
content=”Future scientific and exploration missions can be greatly enhanced with the development of a robust zero-loss cryogenic fluid management, storage and distribution system. Lunar and Mars surface operations can be extended if cryogenic fluids, such as life support gasses and high energy propellants, can be stored and distributed safely, with zero-loss, for long periods in the space environment. utilising similar storage and distribution systems in Earth or lunar orbit can enable refueling of exploration probes, such that they can be launched from Earth with less fuel onboard. This provides more launch payload mass for equipment and instrumentation.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22f8366bb3f7575900000c”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”regulate-space-traffic-113″
title=”Regulate space traffic”
content=”Establish a lunar base traffic management system. Define landing zones for cargo and crew landers and establish safe traverse routes in the immediate vicinity of surface infrastructure elements.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22f90eeab8eac94400002f”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”improve-lunar-surface-travel-for-people-114″
title=”Improve lunar surface travel for people”
content=”Develop and utilise short range and long range mobility systems to transport crew to different locations on the lunar surface, outside the local area of a lunar outpost. Short-range systems may transport crew directly across the lunar surface, while longrange systems may ‘fly’ from one lunar location to another. Wherever possible, mobility systems should be able to operate with minimal human support and designed for maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22f945eab8eaf04f00001a”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”improve-lunar-surface-travel-for-cargo-115″
title=”Improve lunar surface travel for cargo”
content=”Develop and utilise short range and long range mobility systems to transport cargo and equipment to different locations on the lunar surface, outside the local area of a lunar outpost. Short-range systems may transport cargo and equipment directly across the lunar surface, while long-range systems may ‘fly’ from one lunar location to another. Wherever possible, mobility systems should be able to operate with minimal human support and designed for maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4efc7e9169bedd8a68000044″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-vehicles-for-a-lunar-outpost-116″
title=”Develop vehicles for a lunar outpost”
content=”Develop and utilise short-range surface mobility system to support local operations within a lunar outpost complex. Within a complex, systems to enable construction and maintenance of the lunar outpost will be most useful. Examples of necessary capabilities include site preparation, cargo delivery, construction support, and infrastructure inspection. Mobility systems may be embedded in construction and maintenance equipment, or be a platform to support multiple tools. Wherever possible, systems should be able to operate with minimal crew support.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22fa376bb3f7815f00000e”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”design-better-space-clothes-117″
title=”Design better space clothes”
content=”Develop a high performance EVA suit that allows crews to operate safely on the lunar surface. Ideally, the suit is lightweight, allows for dextrous manipulation of objects, supports unhindered movement, and minimizes the amount of regolith that crews and habitats are exposed to.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22fb0169beddc31b000020″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”deal-with-the-space-outpost-environment-118″
title=”Deal with the space outpost environment”
content=”Develop and utilise robots to support local operations within a lunar outpost complex. Robot capabilities can range from crew-assisted, tele-operated, or autonomous. Robots outside of facilities such as habitats and laboratories can perform construction and maintenance tasks for the Moon base and function as bulldozers, dextrous manipulators, drilling robots, etc. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility for Mars exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e5e68c06bb3f75f6200000e”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”manage-space-outposts-with-robots-119″
title=”Manage space outposts with robots”
content=”Develop and utilise robots to support local operations within a lunar outpost complex. Robot capabilities can range from crew-assistened, teleoperated, or autonomous. Robots inside facilities such as habitats, laboratories, and greenhouses can support crews as porters, secretaries, gardeners, laboratory assistants, and task aides. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility for Mars exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e57bec0eab8ea8755000010″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”innovate-robots-for-space-exploration-120″
title=”Innovate robots for space exploration”
content=”Develop and utilise robots to support exploration activities outside the local area of a lunar outpost. Robot capabilities can range from crew-assistened, tele-operated, or autonomous. Robots can be utilized by crews exploring the lunar surface and performing field science. Robots can perform repetitive precision work, such as deploying geophysical monitoring stations or conducting geologic and route reconnaissance. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility for Mars exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e0509bbccd1d52d381c0000″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”create-better-teleoperation-equipment-121″
title=”Create better teleoperation equipment”
content=”Develop teleoperation capabilities to determine the feasibility of remote operation of equipment on the lunar surface. Develop prototype systems to test the utility, effectiveness, and efficiency of teleoperation. Teleoperation could be controlled by individuals on the Moon, in space, or on Earth, and will require the technology to link operators across time delays to the surface systems.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4cac74287f8b9a373c520200″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”discover-what-kinds-of-resources-the-moon-has-122″
title=”Discover what kinds of resources the Moon has”
content=”characterising and quantifying the resource potential of the Moon includes activities that map out and generate greater understanding of these resources. Determining this may utilise remote sensing, in-situ methods, and resource extraction process evaluations, and economic and market studies that develop an appreciation of the specific applications, products, services and benefits that would accrue from the use of lunar resources. The resources of the Moon include, but are not limited to, materials found at or near the lunar surface and the chemical and physical properties of these materials, the lunar vacuum, the solar energy flux on the Moon, the solar wind, the relatively low lunar gravity and the high potential energy of the Moon’s gravity well (compared to Earth), the temperature extremes of the lunar surface (including permanently shadowed regions), and the 28-day lunar diurnal period.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22fc3feab8ea7056000020″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”invent-tools-to-analyze-lunar-substances-123″
title=”Invent tools to analyse lunar substances”
content=”Develop and validate tools, technologies, and systems that excavate lunar material. In particular, develop the capability to remove and move large masses of raw material in the lunar environment. Development and validation includes experimentally validating tools, software, components and systems that perform various engineering processing of extracted lunar resources. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ed3f949eab8ea4d0d000029″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”fashion-lunar-and-if-possible-martian-excavation-equipment-124″
title=”Fashion lunar (and, if possible, Martian) excavation equipment”
content=”Develop and validate tools, technologies, and systems that extract lunar resources from excavated lunar material. Development and validation includes experimentally validating tools, software, components and systems that perform various engineering unit operations associated with extracting. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e613d3449e2aee562000019″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”fashion-lunar-and-if-possible-martian-mining-equipment-125″
title=”Fashion lunar (and, if possible, Martian) mining equipment”
content=”Develop and validate tools, technologies, and systems that extract lunar resources from excavated lunar material. Development and validation includes experimentally validating tools, software, components and systems that perform various engineering unit operations associated with extracting. Wherever possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee6208a6bb3f7783d000021″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”fashion-lunar-and-if-possible-martian-manufacturing-equipment-126″
title=”Fashion lunar (and, if possible, Martian) manufacturing equipment”
content=”Develop and validate tools, technologies, and systems that process extracted lunar resources into products that may be utilized. Development and validation includes experimentally validating tools, software, components and systems that perform various engineering processing of extracted lunar resources. Wherver possible, systems should be designed with maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e89ba9aecad04f10e000052″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”make-lunar-travel-safer-127″
title=”Make lunar travel safer”
content=”Demonstrate pilot- and sub-pilot scale systems that utilise space resources safely, effectively, and in an energy-efficient manner. Examples of demonstrations include oxygen production from regolith for life support and propulsion; energy production, transport, storage, and distribution for outpost use; excavation and transport of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal moderation; water production for life support, radiation shielding, and cosmic ray telescopes; fuel production (as opposed to oxident production); fabrication and construction of structural and building materials; production of spare parts, machines and tools; and construction and site preparation using lunar materials and energy.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22fdcc69bedde42a000024″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”figure-out-how-to-use-lunar-products-with-earth-products-128″
title=”Figure out how to use lunar products with Earth products”
content=”Develop, validate, and incorporate into lunar architecture planning and missions specific new products that specifically utilise in-situ resources and resource-derived products instead of Earth-supplied consumables or products. This includes scientific, engineering, economic and market studies and investigations that consider and advance a wide variety of possible uses of lunar resources. Examples include the development of new propellants and fuels (such as powdered metal, silane, or sulfur); hybrid rocket motors that utilise lunar-based propellants; ceramics based on ceramic precursor materials available from lunar regolith; advanced thin-film deposition processes that exploit the ‘hard’ lunar vacuum in manufacturing optical telescope mirrors, photovoltaic systems, solar concentrators and light-weight solar sails; and a neutronic fusion reactors based on He-3. Wherever possible, these products and systems should be designed with maximum extensibility to Mars.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ed7d760eab8eaf41e00000d”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”try-to-use-lunar-resources-to-support-life-129″
title=”Try to use lunar resources to support life”
content=”Produce propellants and life support and other consumables from lunar resources. Consumable production could be done via water extraction from lunar ice with conversion to hydrogen and oxygen, oxygen extraction from regolith, extraction of components of the solar wind from regolith, and using regolith as a medium in which to grow plants. The primary products of interest are propellants for transportation, oxygen and nitrogen for breathing, water for shielding and crew usage, food and other plant matter, and other chemicals for life support and exploration purposes (e.g., instrumentation gases).

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ef5009eecad044d6b00000b”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”build-stuff-from-lunar-materials-130″
title=”Build stuff from lunar materials”
content=”Construct facilities and manufacture hardware, materials, and other products from lunar resources. Outcomes of interest include construction of shielding materials and other structural elements for habitats, shelters, fixed infrastructure and other facilities; preparation of landing pads and surface transport pathways; construction of facilities for energy production and storage (e.g., chemical storage tanks, electrical transmission systems, thermal energy storage reservoirs, etc); and production of solar photovoltaics.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d10eeb849e2ae5963680000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”figure-out-how-to-repair-equipment-with-lunar-resources-131″
title=”Figure out how to repair equipment with lunar resources”
content=”Repair, fabricate and assemble parts and products using extracted and processed in-situ resources to support self-sustained, long duration missions.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c6e8aa77f8b9af05b110000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”use-lunar-resources-to-conduct-other-space-explorations-132″
title=”Use lunar resources to conduct other space explorations”
content=”Produce products from lunar resources that can be used for missions to other destinations, to enable and support future exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e298ceb4bd7c84f710f0000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”use-lunar-energy-to-power-the-earth-133″
title=”Use lunar energy to power the Earth”
content=”Establish one or more alternative energy sources for Earth based on lunar resources. Potential energy sources include Helium-3 mining for use in fusion reactors on Earth and supplying materials and components for assembly and operation of space solar power satellites in cis-lunar space and beamed power from the lunar surface.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c28c4337f8b9a697a9c0100″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”create-lunar-monuments-134″
title=”Create lunar monuments”
content=”Build lunar heritage sites at important historical locations on the Moon, such as the Apollo landing sites. Ensure that these sites are preserved in a way that they can be appreciated in the future.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f22ff3e69bedd9925000039″
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”preserve-mankinds-history-and-plant-seeds-in-a-back-up-location-135″
title=”Preserve mankind’s history and plant seeds in a back-up location”
content=”Preserve an archive of life on Earth on the Moon. This archive could include an agricultural cultivar bank, a data back-up site, which would include historical, cultural, and other data, and other archives of life on Earth.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee10db76bb3f7c90300000d”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”establish-preservation-programs-for-certain-parts-of-the-moon-136″
title=”Establish preservation programs for certain parts of the moon.”
content=”Preserve regions of the Moon in their natural state. Maintain regions of the Moon for future scientific, cultural, recreation, and other uses.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f2300746bb3f79d6b000001″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”get-the-private-sector-involved-in-lunar-development-137″
title=”Get the private sector involved in lunar development”
content=”Engage the commercial sector throughout lunar strategy development to embed them in all current and future aspects of lunar activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ca9eaf37f8b9a3873e50200″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”market-future-lunar-activities-to-prospective-sponsors-138″
title=”Market future lunar activities to prospective sponsors”
content=”Identify commercial markets for lunar activities by developing profitable lunar products for Earth and space use. Enable markets to form around these products by identifying market demand and price points. Collaborations between industry, government, and/or academia could lead to the development of new products and markets.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f032248eab8eac02d00000c”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”devise-methods-to-transfer-government-lunar-assets-to-the-private-sector-139″
title=”Devise methods to transfer government lunar assets to the private sector”
content=”Create a strategy for permanently transferring government lunar assets, such as physical facilities, associated infrastructure, and the related operational considerations (physical, logistical, legal transfer), to the private sector. As these assets are transferred, there will need to be sufficient commercial or scientific reasons for living on Moon, such that it remains an attractive destination for private firms to utilise the government assets and invest further.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4eb00c9becad04104e00003d”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”get-the-private-sector-involved-in-further-space-travel-140″
title=”Get the private sector involved in further space travel”
content=”Engage the commercial, enthusiast, and other non-government communities early in the process of developing standard operating procedures for exploration. Consider other business models to enhance the benefits of involvement in exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f2302116bb3f76b6500001b”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”start-a-new-love-affair-between-government-industry-and-academia-141″
title=”Start a new love affair between government, industry, and academia”
content=”Explore new methods of collaboration between and among industry, government, and academic entities, to maximise the benefits that each can bring to each other.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f23028f6bb3f76c5f000049″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”subsidize-lunar-commerce-142″
title=”subsidise lunar commerce”
content=”Provide non-monetary government assistance to industry actors interested in pursuing lunar activities. Specific examples include governments providing ‘free rides’ or secondary payloads on expensive launch vehicles, leasing government assets to industry for commercial use, favourable finance and insurance regulations, and pursuing expensive research and development in cooperation with industry.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4df618fb4bd7c8512a5f0000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”develop-a-lunar-legal-system-143″
title=”Develop a lunar legal system”
content=”Resolve, as appropriate and possible, legal issues associated with lunar activities. Specific examples of legal issues that could have a detrimental effect on industry as a whole include liability and real and intellectual property rights.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e95e5bdeab8eaa808000032″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”regulate-commercial-lunar-activities-144″
title=”Regulate commercial lunar activities”
content=”Resolve regulatory issues, as appropriate and possible, associated lunar activities. Specific examples of regulatory issues include export control regulations, commercial zoning and other policies that might impede the development of commercial lunar activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dff7482ccd1d50063140000″
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”give-governments-long-term-rights-to-certain-moon-equipment-145″
title=”Give governments long-term rights to certain Moon equipment”
content=”Provide opportunities for governments to make advance purchase, long-term commitments (so-called ‘anchor tenancy’) for future goods and services from industry. A specific example requiring anchor tenancy could be the development of large-scale infrastructure for exploration, similar to the development of the electrical-grid system on Earth. Other innovative acquisition practices (e.g. alternatives to ‘Cost-Plus’ contracts) should be utilized and built upon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f2046f06bb3f73a2600000e”
caption=””
credit=””
credit_href=””
]
[slide
permalink=”produce-moon-oriented-entertainment-a-moon-version-of-planet-earth-146″
title=”Produce Moon-oriented entertainment (a Moon version of Planet Earth?)”
content=”utilise innovative commercial media outlets, such as internet-based sources, cell phone broadcasts, etc. to broadcast information about lunar activities to the public. Traditional media sources such as print and television could be utilized as well. Commercial companies could advertise or run promotions centered around
space activities. One idea integrating innovative entertainment is an IMAX movie based off of a fixed Earth-observing camera.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d83b8a5ccd1d5e15b010000″
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[slide
permalink=”create-moon-video-games-147″
title=”Create Moon video games”
content=”Create age-targeted video games, aimed at the younger generation, grounded in the reality of space exploration, possibly using video and data generated by lunar activities. To make the products competitive with current video games, players must be able to interact with one another.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d6ba83249e2aeb262040000″
caption=””
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[slide
permalink=”set-up-a-moon-webcam-148″
title=”Set up a Moon webcam”
content=”Emplace a camera or a rover on the Moon that the public on Earth can operate from their home or school computers.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f23071c69beddbf40000019″
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[slide
permalink=”host-moon-based-entertainment-and-sporting-events-149″
title=”Host Moon-based entertainment and sporting events”
content=”Host entertainment events on the Moon that will generate general public interest. Ideas for events include micro-g human sports or a lunar rover race.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4b6734950000000000540122″
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[slide
permalink=”promote-lunar-tourism-150″
title=”Promote lunar tourism”
content=”Private companies can sell trips to and stays on the Moon, if individuals are willing to pay for a ticket. Provide fun recreational activities, such as lunar gymnastics, human powered flight, and other lunar sports, based around the unique lunar environment, to entertain the paying tourists.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dcafe7a4bd7c8fd65290000″
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[slide
permalink=”establish-a-commercial-astronaut-corp-151″
title=”Establish a commercial astronaut corp”
content=”A commercial astronaut corp may consist of private individuals selected and specially-trained to perform duties on the lunar surface. A number of different contracting options could be conceived for this scenario. In one example, if a commercial firm was carrying out science objectives, they could simply sell the data or samples they return.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4eb3fa19ecad04b367000062″
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[slide
permalink=”design-moon-earth-transports-152″
title=”Design Moon-Earth transports”
content=”Provide fast, reliable, and regularly scheduled transportation services between points in cislunar space. Government should work towards purchasing transportation services from the private sector as soon as they are available.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4df761a049e2ae1d650d0000″
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[slide
permalink=”get-the-private-sector-to-buy-moon-gps-satellites-153″
title=”Get the private sector to buy Moon GPS satellites”
content=”The commercial sector can provide a Position, Navigation, and Timing system (simliar to GPS or Galileo) for the Moon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e748b7a69bedd834f000017″
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[slide
permalink=”encourage-private-sector-investment-in-long-distance-telecom-154″
title=”Encourage private sector investment in long distance telecom”
content=”The commercial sector can provide information and communications services, such as an internet-like capability that can transmit and recieve of data in any form, as well as handle data securely and integrate into the terrestrial communications infrastructure.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e53b2d0ecad04ba7a000004″
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[slide
permalink=”involve-the-private-sector-in-harvesting-lunar-resources-and-making-lunar-products-155″
title=”Involve the private sector in harvesting lunar resources and making lunar products”
content=”utilise the commercial sector to perform lunar resource utilization activities, such as resource prospecting, mining, materials processing, manufacturing, construction and other services/products based on lunar resources. This includes the use of private enterprise for the performance of various activities in the vertical chain from resource-to-product. Construction services include the assembly of research settlements and other facilities and structures supporting research and commercial operation. Manufacturing higher-level capabilities through making or processing lunar raw materials into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. Other services/products can include depots for transportation and life support, and power generation, storage, and delivery services.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee276beeab8ea6062000031″
caption=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”make-lunar-missions-open-source-156″
title=”Make lunar missions open-source”
content=”Allow the commercial sector and the public to contribute directly and individually to mission design through an open-source architecture. An open-source architecture means that anyone can access system designs and improve them directly. See Red Hat and Linux as examples.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f144ad169bedd8c7d00001b”
caption=””
credit=””
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]
[slide
permalink=”sell-lunar-materials-and-products-for-revenue-157″
title=”Sell lunar materials and products for revenue”
content=”Take advantage of the unique lunar environment to develop and manufacture new materials. Sell these materials to support lunar activities and for Earth applications.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f18518d6bb3f76330000060″
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]
[slide
permalink=”sell-moon-power-158″
title=”Sell moon power”
content=”Create power and propulsion based on lunar resources. Power and propulsion could come from mining of regolith, manufacturing of solar cells, or other sources. Sell the product for a variety of uses — on the Moon, in cis-lunar space, in deep-space, and on Earth. An infrastructure will be required for power distribution.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e42767e69bedd0458000027″
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]
[slide
permalink=”encourage-the-private-sector-to-deal-with-lunar-waste-management-159″
title=”Encourage the private sector to deal with lunar waste management”
content=”Remove, recycle, and reuse biological and mechanical waste generated from cis-lunar and lunar activities. Commercial waste management firms could provide these services.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f03461ceab8ea986a000011″
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]
[slide
permalink=”encourage-government-collaboration-in-lunar-activities-160″
title=”Encourage government collaboration in lunar activities”
content=”A global framework, able to encompass both commercial and governmental involvement, should be established to coordinate the lunar activities of all interested parties. This framework should allow for (but may not require) coordination of roadmaps and missions, sharing of data, infrastructure and facilities, while maintaining autonomy (if desired) of participants.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ec3d527eab8ea4149000005″
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[slide
permalink=”encourage-information-sharing-about-space-exploration-161″
title=”Encourage information sharing about space exploration”
content=”Use existing standards and establish new standards for information (such as data and communication), equipment, and interfaces. Standards should enable systems produced by different parties to be interoperable.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e5e7feeecad040b0b000018″
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[slide
permalink=”impose-international-regulations-on-lunar-trade-162″
title=”Impose international regulations on lunar trade”
content=”Review and amend national export control laws and regulations, as necessary and as possible, to allow for timely, flexible, and sustainable cooperation between nations conducting lunar activitities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4d824c8649e2ae4639010000″
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[slide
permalink=”agree-on-outer-space-laws-163″
title=”Agree on outer space laws”
content=”Given the framework of the Outer Space Treaty, establish legal mechanisms to govern elements of lunar activity. Areas these mechanisms should cover include the possibility of zoning, terrestrial leasehold, easement, and tenant law to settle access, land use, and resource disputes; liability provisions to address personal injury and property damage, in a manner allowing the insurance industry to manage risk sustainability; clarifying intellectual property rights; and ensuring environmental protection of the Moon. These legal mechanisms could be an internationally agreed-upon ‘Rules of the Road,’ with or without some body to administer and govern elements of lunar activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e00f2c7ccd1d5f861000000″
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]
[slide
permalink=”promote-learning-about-the-moon-globally-164″
title=”Promote learning about the Moon globally”
content=”An integrated, long-range strategy to guide the space community’s activities in education, communication, engagement and outreach will promote substantive understanding, increase working knowledge, foster dialogue and ‘ownership,’ and inspire the next generations of citizens to continue their support for lunar exploration.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee119cf69bedd1e1300002a”
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[slide
permalink=”get-the-public-excited-about-being-on-the-moon-165″
title=”Get the public excited about being on the Moon”
content=”Provide opportunities for the public to watch surface operations. Video could be taken of many different lunar locations and activities, including landing sites, construction activities, and any other dynamic activity that may be of interest to the public. This objective could be implemented by having a space agency pay for a small micro-rover to film around interesting activities, while enabling a media source to utilise the film for public engagement purposes.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f230c0a69bedd6848000016″
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[slide
permalink=”produce-moon-reality-tv-166″
title=”Produce Moon reality TV”
content=”Provide opportunities for the public to follow the human side of crew activities on the Moon. This could involve putting cameras at various places inside the habitable environment. Acess can be controlled so as not to be too intrusive to daily crew lives.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4bb1058a7f8b9a7d35e50000″
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[slide
permalink=”devise-methods-for-people-on-earth-to-interact-with-astronauts-and-moon-equipment-167″
title=”Devise methods for people on Earth to interact with astronauts and moon equipment”
content=”Create opportunities for direct public manipulation of small technologies on the lunar surface. Initially, public interaction can be achieved via a simple camera that is keyed to filter, buffer, and process internet inputs. As time goes on, the system can become more sophisticated to provide more opportunities to interact. Later, this can include the public being able to remotely command repetitive tasks that a participating crew member would need to do anyway, with protection mechanisms in place to ensure that the crew’s needs are met. Students should be given special access to these activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f1ebba9ecad04ca43000027″
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[slide
permalink=”encourage-children-to-interact-with-astronauts-168″
title=”Encourage children to interact with astronauts”
content=”Provide opportunities for the public, in particular students, to communicate with crews via electronic means and/or verbal interactions such as live interviews. Crews should be able to respond to selected messages from students and the general public. Wide distribution of the crew response will ensure maximum benefit.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f230d3469bedd334d000010″
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[slide
permalink=”make-moon-news-169″
title=”Make Moon news”
content=”Distribute highly engaging, ‘bite sized’ space-related media to new media outlets. Provide web content, animations, and short video clips to internet sites such as Google Video, YouTube, Atom Films, and Shockwave.com.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4df908b9cadcbbba6c300000″
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[slide
permalink=”encourage-public-engagement-in-space-missions-170″
title=”Encourage public engagement in space missions”
content=”Allocate space on government missions for outside payloads. Solicit ideas for every mission so that a much broader thinking pool can be touched when looking for public engagement activities.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f230dcd69bedd1552000008″
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[slide
permalink=”develop-relationships-between-academia-and-the-moon-171″
title=”Develop relationships between academia and the Moon”
content=”Engage students directly and indirectly in a variety of lunar activities. Initial activities can be simply developing an educational curricula focused on the Moon. Later activities will have students based on Earth but participating in an activity on the Moon – such as teleoperation of a rover or designing a science experiment to be conducted on the Moon. Over time, these activities will move toward direct student engagement in lunar activities, such as a Lunar Institute, based on the Moon, that would allow selected students and teachers to travel to and learn on the Moon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f230ef3eab8ea5e79000029″
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[slide
permalink=”teach-daily-lessons-about-the-moon-172″
title=”Teach daily lessons about the Moon”
content=”Allocate time for crews to create and/or teach lessons about recent and ongoing daily activities on the Moon, from a scientific, engineering, or operational perspective. Either train astronauts to be educators, or fly educators and have them teach.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f230fc469bedd2557000002″
caption=””
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[slide
permalink=”support-university-run-moon-research-173″
title=”Support university-run Moon research”
content=”Allocate space on missions for university-built payloads. Create opportunities for students to conceive, develop, implement, and operate space systems that will be carried to the Moon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f23103ceab8ea0873000026″
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[slide
permalink=”promote-space-exploration-174″
title=”Promote space exploration”
content=”Extend awareness of space activities to nontraditional communities that are rarely reached directly by the space program. Involve musicians, artists, poets, story tellers, etc. in public outreach about space to try and reach the general public in a new way. Non-traditional methods have proved effective in formal and informal education settings as well.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee0f4b9ecad044d48000006″
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[slide
permalink=”encourage-astronaut-expression-175″
title=”Encourage astronaut expression”
content=”Allocate crew time to tell the daily lunar story to the public. Crews can convey the message verbally, via video or audio broadcasts, or in written form, via internet blogs or regular newspaper columns. Allow crews to be expressive, and to convey the emotional and human sides of the story as well. Crews could should be trained as storytellers and writers so as to present a more engaging story to the public.

Source: NASA
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[slide
permalink=”do-moon-pr-176″
title=”Do Moon PR”
content=”Demonstrate the value of lunar activities by developing a coherent and compelling (and truthful) ‘story’ about how activities on the Moon can provide benefits to Earth. This story may be framed and delivered differently to reach different stakeholders, so as to have the most impact on each. This story should clearly answer all of the questions as to why we are going to the Moon.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee2524f69beddb56e000049″
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[slide
permalink=”initiate-space-exploration-as-a-topic-of-public-conversation-177″
title=”Initiate space exploration as a topic of public conversation”
content=”Invite public comment and opinion on exploration to hear the many different views with respect to exploration and the need for it, especially as it competes for public resources. Good knowledge of all the views, both for and against, can be used toward forming exploration policy that will satisfy a broader segment of the public.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4ee7e06469bedd2612000025″
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[slide
permalink=”do-moon-video-tours-maybe-even-with-celebrities-178″
title=”Do Moon video tours (maybe even with celebrities)”
content=”Carry out a mission for pure public engagement. An idea for a small mission would be to send a small commercial payload to the Moon that will yield something of entertainment value (i.e. photographs or videos) that can be broadcast to the public. An idea for a medium-sized mission would be to emplace something on the Moon that could be seen from Earth by the naked eye. An idea for a larger mission would be to send a
celebrity to the Moon and create a documentary to show their experience. utilise advertising and sponsorship revenues to fund the mission.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4dfb3d3e49e2ae1e5b060000″
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[slide
permalink=”support-moon-advertising-179″
title=”Support Moon advertising”
content=”Participating space agencies should actively engage the outside community to provide mission support and funding for the objectives that support public education, communication, engagement, and outreach.

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f231175eab8eaa305000018″
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[slide
permalink=”make-space-fans-180″
title=”Make space fans”
content=”utilise existing grassroots pro-space organisations (clubs, student organisations, etc.) to carry public engagement messages to the public. Support pro-space events, such as an ‘Armstrong Night,’ similar to existing events like ‘Yuri’s Night.’

Source: NASA
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4f2311ed69bedd3557000013″
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[slide
permalink=”now-for-a-little-nostalgia-181″
title=”Now for a little nostalgia…”
content=”The Photos From The Last Atlantis Flight Are Out Of This World
image=”http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4e280de149e2ae244e180000″
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[/slideshow]