Since 1851, the World’s Fairs have drawn millions from across the globe to exchange ideas and inventions.
The fairs have also left behind architectural stamps, forever changing city landscapes and skylines.
These “leftovers” represent the challenge that’s posed to fair architects: build a structure that represents an idealised vision of the future.
While some of these gems — such as the Eiffel Tower and the Seattle Space Needle — have become cultural icons, every World’s Fair city has its own architectural keepsake.
Photographer Jade Doskow has made exploring and documenting these sites her lifelong pursuit. “As a photographer, I’m interested in architecture that’s outlived its purpose,” she told Business Insider.
Keep scrolling for a tour of the somewhat bizarre World’s Fair remains Doskow has photographed.
With her photographs, Doskow begs the question, 'What is that thing doing here?' Built for the 1967 World's Fair in Montreal, Canada, this geodesic dome (part of the 'Man and his World' exhibition) by Buckminster Fuller is known as the Biosphere and houses an environmental museum.
Montreal 1967 World's Fair, 'Man and His World,' Buckminster Fuller's Geodesic Dome With Solar Experimental House (photographed in 2012)
Also from the 'Man and his World' exhibit, the famed Habitat 67 is one of Doskow's favourite World's Fair structures. Designed by Canadian architect Moshe Safdie, the apartment complex brings the luxuries of suburban living to an urban environment. It has 146 residences, each with its own private terrace. Safdie was only 23 when he began the endeavour.
Montreal 1967 World's Fair, 'Man and His World,' Habitat '67 (photographed in 2012)
Doskow conducts extensive research before shooting a site. She's especially a fan of old maps from the 19th and 20th Century Fairs: 'They have all these cool design elements from each era,' she says. Here, a structure from New York's 1964 World's Fair stands at the New York State Pavilion.
New York 1964 World's Fair, 'Peace Through Understanding,' New York State Pavilion (photographed in 2008)
The theme of the '64 Fair was 'Peace Through Understanding,' and the Unisphere (below) was its iconic symbol. Towering 140 feet and weighing 700,000 pounds, the stainless steel globe sits in New York's Flushing, Queens.
New York 1964 World's Fair, 'Peace Through Understanding,' Unisphere, (photographed in 2009)
Doskow is fascinated by the effect major world events have on World's Fair themes. The '64 Fair, which focused on science and technology, was heavily influenced by the Space Race.
New York 1964 World's Fair, 'Peace Through Understanding,' Aeroplane (photographed in 2011)
While Seattle's Space Needle might be the more well known 1962 World's Fair remnant, Doskow's ambition to photograph every item (such as the Universal Fountain, below) highlights how these structures continue to impact the community. 'I like that these temporary events have a hand in shaping a lot of urban experiences,' she says.
Seattle 1962 World's Fair, 'The Century 21 Exposition,' Universal Fountain (photographed in 2007)
Doskow's work challenges our perceptions of these structures. 'I like to bring a feeling of magic and fantasy to the pictures,' she says. The way she chose to photograph the Atomium (below) in Brussels, Belgium, certainly accomplishes this. Built for the Expo at the 1958 World's Fair, it symbolises an optimistic vision of the future.
Brussels 1958 World's Fair, 'A World View: A New Humanism,' Atomium (photographed in 2007)
Not everyone agrees with Doskow's portrayal of these sites, though. 'I've received negative reactions from individuals who feel I haven't depicted things the way they see it,' she says.
Spokane 1974 World's Fair, 'Celebrating Tomorrow's Fresh New Environment,' United States Pavilion (photographed in 2007)
Held in San Antonio, Texas, the 1968 World's Fair was themed 'The Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas,' celebrating the many nationalities of people who'd settled in the region.
San Antonio 1968 World's Fair, 'The Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas,' Instituto Cultural De México with Olmec Head (photographed in 2013)
The 1897 World's Fair took place in Nashville, Tennessee, on the 100th anniversary of Tennessee's entry into the Union. Located in the city's Centennial Park, 'The Parthenon' is a full-scale replica of the Athenian original.
Tennessee 1897 World's Fair, 'Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition,' The Parthenon, (photographed in 2013)
Recently, Doskow has been working with documentary film director Philip Shane, who discovered her on Kickstarter, where she raised over $10,000 to travel around and photograph these sites. Shane has followed Doskow from Seattle to New York, documenting her project.
Brussels 1897 World's Fair, 'Exposition Internationale de Bruxelles,' Grand Mosque (photographed in 2008)
Now that Doskow has finished photographing all the World's Fair sites in North America, she's revisiting them -- coming back to each site in an attempt to 'tell a story, as well as create a visceral experience' of how they make her feel as she stands in their presence.
Philadelphia 1876 World's Fair, 'Centennial Exposition,' Fair Washrooms (photographed in 2008)
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